History Of Bioinformatics

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Bioinformatics is a study that focuses on the collection and analysis of biological information using information from sequences of DNA, RNA, and proteins. This field focuses on how to make predictions about biological systems and analyze data to provide more insight on how living organisms function and how its genome relates to its biology. Following the determination of the insulin sequence, Frederick Sanger realized that manually comparing several sequences was impractical (Moody 2004)). Margaret Dayoff composed one of the first protein sequence databases (Dayoff 1965). As more complete genome sequences became available, Sanger pioneered the creation of computer assisted analysis (Sanger 1977). With the merging of computer technology and …show more content…
Each well is loaded with products from a different reaction. The strand being sequenced will have the opposite Watson-Crick base, meaning the well loaded with products of the G reaction will identify the C nucleotide in the sequence. Finally, autoradiography is performed following the electrophoretic gel separation. The polyacrylamide gel is placed in contact with a x-ray film sheet. Dark bands are produced by exposure of the 32P with the x-ray film. The sequence read from the autoradiograph will be the complementary to the single-stranded DNA template. Overall this process is also referred to as the Sanger method. The gel is read backwards from top to bottom to produce the stand in a 5’ to 3’ manner. Once the gel is read, the sequence of nucleotides is submitted to the NCBI website using BLASTN algorithm. The search options can be specified for humans, mice, or others. The option “others” was used in the case of our experiment. Once the search results are complete, the name of the gene, species, amino acid count information, among other information can be found. Results are listed in order …show more content…
The 20 nucleotide search results showed that the sequence codes for the Replication Factor C (RFC1) gene. The 30 nucleotide sequence also had the same results. This gene is found in mus musculus, otherwise more commonly known as the house mouse. In exercise 2, the DNA sequence is read approximately six centimeters from the bottom of the autoradiograph. The name of the gene found is Lactate/Malate Dehydrogenase (UEVLD). This is also found in the mus musculus. According to the site, the stand in the query is from the 5th nucleotide to the 34th nucleotide. However, our subject was listed from 534th to the 505th, meaning our strand was read from the 3’ end to the 5’ end. Thus, this is a part of the antisense strand. In exercise 3, the resulting gene was a Rho GTPase Activating Protein 5, which has 1502 amino acids. Finally, exercise 4, the DNA strand read from the bottom resulted in a MAP Kinase (Mek 1 gene) for Nicotiana tabacum mRNA. The strand read starting a third way up the gel was Ras-related c3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac1) in Cavia porcellus. The MEK1 enzyme of MAP kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of the ERK. The Ras protein work as biological switches for intracellular signaling. Both are related to the protein-serine/threonine kinase that participate in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade (4). This cascade regulates many processes in the organism, including but not limited

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