Genetic Variation And Its Effect On The Diversity Of Genes Essay

1008 Words Jan 13th, 2015 5 Pages
Randomness and chance are also involved in genetic variation, and both harmful and beneficial mutation. Genetic variation contributes to the diversity of genes in a population.11 For example, eye colour, skin colour, ear shape, hair colour all vary differently in humans.11 The Hardy-Weinberg Principle is a method for geneticists to study genetic variation and evolution. It is a model that predicts the outcome and offspring of a non-evolving population. This model is then compared to an existing population and the differences between the non-evolving population and the existing population display evolution.12 An example is polyploidy. In animals, polyploidy is extremely rare, however, in plants, polyploidy is common and it is the source of genetic variation. Normally, in a non-evolving population of plant hybrids, the plants would not be fertile and would not reproduce. However, through evolution, plants developed polyploidy to allow for fertility.13 Genetic variation is caused by meiosis, gene flow, and mutations. Mutations are changes to DNA code that can result in beneficial, neutral, or harmful effects.14 These effects vary depending on the environment. For instance, a mutation on the hemoglobin gene can be harmful to organisms living at high altitudes but may not cause a big effect on organisms that live at sea level.15 Positive mutations allow organisms to survive, a result of natural selection. On the other hand, harmful mutations often lead to diseases such as sickle…

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