Gender Identity And The Psychological Sense Of Being Male Or Female

762 Words Jul 17th, 2015 4 Pages
GENDER ROLE IDENTITIES BY BEM
According to Psychologist Sandra Lipsitz Bem, Gender identity refers to the psychological sense of being male or female, whereas Gender role refers to cultural expectations of the behaviors and social roles deemed appropriate for men and women. Gender identity is determined by both biological influences and environmental influences. On the other hand, gender roles are acquired by observational learning and reinforcement (Social Cognitive Theory), gender schemas (Gender Schema Theory), gender roles representing genetic predispositions (Evolutionary Theory) and through cultural adaptations (Socio-cultural Theory). The specifics regarding these gendered expectations may vary substantially among cultures, while other characteristics may be common throughout a range of cultures. There is ongoing debate as what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, and to what extent they are socially constructed. Gender roles may be a means through which one may express their gender identity, but they may also be employed as a means of exerting social control, and individuals may experience negative social consequences for violating them. Various groups have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate, most notably the feminist movement.
Using a gender role inventory, she developed four different gender role identities namely: masculine, feminine, psychologically androgynous…

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