Essay on Function Of Cancer Cells : Oncogene Vs. Tumor Suppressor

1213 Words Aug 5th, 2015 null Page
ATF3 function in cancer cells: oncogene vs. tumor suppressor
The mouse homolog of ATF3 (named TI-241) was identified by differential hybridization due to its high expression in the extremely metastatic melanoma cell line B16-F10, and absence in the related but non-metastatic cell line B16-F1. While characterizing the ATF3 mouse homolog, it was found that over-expression of ATF3 in the non-metastatic B16-F1cells converted them into highly metastatic cells, therefore, suggesting that ATF3 functions as an oncogene in melanoma. Subsequently, the same group described an oncogenic role of ATF3 in a human colon cancer cell line; wherein knock-down of ATF3 in the cancer cells reduced tumor growth in vivo and increased survival of the mice. However, concomitant research in other labs suggested that ATF3 functions as a tumor suppressor. For instance, Lu et.al., reported that ATF3 suppresses Ras-mediated tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Thus, these early studies put forth contrasting outcomes of ATF3 expression in cancer. Yet, these conflicting findings once again point towards the context-depended nature of ATF3 function and are representative of ATF3 modality in most cancers. Existing literature indicates that depending on the oncogenic signal, the cell type and the cancer type studied, ATF3 can function as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene (table). To elaborate further, I will summarize key studies that demonstrate a divergent functional role of ATF3 in…

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