Mesopotamia Civilization Essay

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Due to its fertile location and lack of natural defenses, early Mesopotamia was often prey to invasion. The societies that survived there were groups that valued physical strength, as seen in their idolization of Gilgamesh, the fifth king of Uruk (T&E, Bentley and Ziegler). Military was a necessity to live in the resource rich lands, so those who could protect the kingdoms were admired by the people. There was no unification in Mesopotamia, but rather many smaller kingdoms, made up of cities and the surrounding territories that would be used for agriculture to support a steadily increasing population. The naturally fertile land and development of irrigation systems meant that more people could pursue other skills, so the culture developed …show more content…
The state was very closely affiliated with religion and religion was crucial in every citizen’s life. The Pharaohs were seen as gods and therefore well respected by the people. And although the Pharaoh was the absolute monarch, they did not rule alone, they received help from a well-educated vizier. Their culture was polytheistic, which made interactions with neighboring civilizations easier, they were open to other culture’s beliefs and traditions and would even adopt many where they see fit. This flexibility of the culture may have been a reason they were so successful. They were able to maintain interactions with nearly all of their neighboring civilizations which provided them with many resources the harsh desert did not produce. Law and order were kept utilizing religion. Unlike in Mesopotamia, where people were moral for fear of punishment, the Egyptians were moral so that their afterlife would be good. They strived to do good so that when Osiris weighed their heart it would not be heavy and they could pass into the next world (T&E, Bentley and Ziegler). Social classes also differed in Egypt, instead of born nobles being second down the social pyramid, the government officials were in their place, meaning that people could move up in society by working for the state, encouraging hard work and a stronger government. They developed a strong enough government that was able to rule the unified …show more content…
Many of these polytheistic cultures believed it was their job as humans to tend to the earth and please the gods, so agriculture was important to them, which supports a strong civilization. The Aryan civilization was one of the most powerful groups in south Asia, but they mixed with the Dravidian and eventually the combination of traditions would be the foundation for Hinduism. During the Vedic Age the caste system, Rig Veda, was created. It was believed that this system was created by the gods, therefore priests, or Brahmins, were highly regarded. Castes dictated how individuals would live their lives, and although strict, they were not entirely inflexible, someone could move up with enough hard work. People also believed that if they did a good job they may be born into a higher caste in their next reincarnation (T&E, Bentley and Ziegler). This idea would support and strengthen a stable and secure

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