Lung Cancer Carcinogenesis

Good Essays
Lung cancer carcinogenesis occurs when there is uncontrolled growth of mutated cells in one or both lungs. The cancer develops from mutations in normal cells; the mutated cells form tumors and interfere with the oxygen flow to the body via the blood stream. Tumors develop because of field cancerization, which is the same consecutive genetic and morphologic changes that form an aggressive tumor. Not having oxygen flow can make it very hard for a person to breathe and may cause their body and brain not to function correctly. Tumor suppressor genes are destructive growth regulators that turn off cellular multiplying to the normal cells by repairing DNA or introducing apoptosis. Apoptosis is the cell’s suicidal functions that destroys the cell …show more content…
The lung tissue cells repeatedly become more mutated as the mutated cells divide with DNA. As lung cancer progresses, the tumor can travel via blood vessels to other portions of our body. The progression of this stage results in metastasis, which are the secondary sites for lung cancer. The most common sites of metastasis are the bones, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Lung carcinomas kills most of its victims, and is the most common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer normally does not start showing signs unless it’s later stages. Most common signs and symptoms are: “Smokers cough” – a persistent cough that gets continuously worse, chest pain, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, raspy voice, recurring pneumonia or bronchitis, neck and face swelling, weight loss, decreased appetite and energy. Many victims of lung cancer experience extreme pain, due to compression of nerves, bloods vessels and other vital organs. Treatments for lung cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, Surgery is usually reserved for early stage, solitary lung cancers without evidence of lymph node involvement. Current research for lung cancer is concerned on targeted therapies, improved screenings, better surgical techniques, radiation therapy, and reduced tobacco …show more content…
These advances will expand the treatment options for oncologists, so they can combine chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery for the treatment of patients with any stage of lung cancer.
Improved screening is necessary, because lung cancers are most curable in its early stages. There are low dose CAT scans to screen for lung cancer, and the US preventative services task force has approved the use of this scan for current or ex- smokers with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Advances in imaging, such as PET/CT scans, may result in detecting small lung carcinomas.
The main prevention measure for lung cancer is reducing the use of tobacco. Having the best methods for this detection is a redeeming quality, but the best way to prevent lung cancer is reducing cigarette use. For more than half of the patients diagnosed with lung cancer, it is exceedingly preventable. Even if diagnosed, quitting smoking can help people live longer, reduce side effects, and decrease the chance of recurring lung cancer. Lung cancer can be prevented for the most part, and should be taken

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    One alternative cause of lung cancer is radon, an invisible odorless gas naturally released by some soils and rocks (Longe). Radon gas became an apparent cause of lung cancer in the late 1800’s when nearly 80% of all miners were dying from lung cancer. Particular parts of mines were known as “death pits”, where all workers got sick from the high amounts of radon gas (“Toxicology Sciences”). Exposure to asbestos fibers, hair-like crystals found in rock, is considered a risk factor for lung cancer, and they are often inhaled in jobs such as shipbuilding, mining, insulation, or automotive brake repair. Studies have shown that compared to the general population, asbestos workers are seven times more likely to die from lung cancer (Longe).…

    • 993 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Ddp Chemotherapy

    • 1238 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Chemotherapy remains the main procedure in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer. However, the efficiency of chemotherapy alone is decreasing as resistance is causing more relapse of cancer. Li et al. (2013) evaluated the beneficial effects of the combined use of AdVPTEN gene therapy and DDP chemotherapy. An area of interest for this study was to inhibit tumor angiogenesis, crucial in tumor development and growth.…

    • 1238 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    (1) Cancerous tumors are distinguished by cell division, which is no longer controlled by a normal tissue. The normal cells stop dividing when they come into contact with like cells,a mechanism known as “contact inhibition".Cancerous cells lose their ability . The concept of chemotherapy is to kill cancer cells and it depends on its ability to hold cell division. Usually, cancer drugs work by damaging the RNA or DNA that basically tells the cell how to replicate or copy itself in cell division. If the cancer cells don’t divide on time, they die.…

    • 853 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Human Lung Cancer

    • 1161 Words
    • 5 Pages

    It is important to recognize how it can affect the body if it is not prevented or treated in early stages. The development of lung cancer begins when a single mutated cell begins to replicate abnormally and rapidly, resulting in a malignant tumor. When somebody is diagnosed with lung cancer, the consequence to the patient’s health and overall function of the body is completely altered. Cancer affects everything from the cells to the organism itself. Lung cancer must be taken serious to how it is approached and treated, as different stages of cancer can only be treated with certain procedures.…

    • 1161 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    “The majority of lung cancer cases are detected at an advanced stage when surgical resection is no longer an option. Recent research has concluded that lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for specific high-risk groups may reduce lung cancer mortality” (Lehto, 2014, para. 1). Lungcanceralliance.org (2015) broke down the benefits of lung cancer screening, the result of which include survival rate and advances in research. Lung cancer when caught early, in the stage where the patient is asymptomatic, is better treatable and more easily cured.…

    • 1389 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Heterogeneity Of Cancer

    • 834 Words
    • 4 Pages

    A lot of physicians have been questioning how to treat and distinguish the precancerous cancers, non-invasive cancers, that could remain harmless or become invasive. Scientists try to understand by tracing cancer’s inherent heterogeneity. Cancer cells have unstable genomes that their chromosomes can gain or lose pieces with rapid speed, creating genetically diverse population. Now, researchers track the individual cancer cells more precisely which helps to know more about origins of cancer and how to improve treatments. Scientists find out that since pre-invasive cancer cells are highly unstable and potential to spread, those cells should be treated.…

    • 834 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The third cancer, lung cancer, it very deadly. It affects a good portion of the world’s population. Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. This growth may start in one lung and continue to the other. The abnormal cells grow rapidly and develop into tumors.…

    • 1362 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Lung Cancer Speech

    • 1152 Words
    • 5 Pages

    There is a strong connection between lung cancer and tobacco use. A person who does not smoke is at a much lower risk of getting lung cancer then a person who smokes everyday. There is no denying that people who smoke should quit to save their lives from the cancerous tumor. If you know your family has history of lung cancer, take precautions. After being diagnosed with the cancerous tumor it isn 't a bad idea to get an second opinion for operations such as surgery or radiation treatments.…

    • 1152 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Common cancers Topoisomerase inhibitor drugs treat are leukemia, lung, and ovarian cancers. A disadvantage to taking Topoisomerase inhibitor drugs is that there is a greater chance of being diagnosed with a second cancer. Mitotic inhibitor drugs are plant alkaloids that come from natural products and work by stopping mitosis or enzymes from making the proteins that the cancer cell would need to produce more. This drug treatment works during the m cycle of the cell phase. Two side effects from Mitotic inhibitor drugs are that it can harm cells in all stages of the cell…

    • 1072 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The disease occurs when cells can’t regulate their proliferation and exceed their limit of growth. This causes damaged cells to create a malignant tumor around the breast tissue that eventually metastasize (Clark et al., 2005). A cell functions with the main goal to proliferate in order to substitute worded out cells. Breast cancer originally forms in the lining layer of milk ducts through the epithelial cells of the breast. When cancerous cells form, cells become introduced into the lymph nodes (Anderson, 2010).…

    • 1265 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays

Related Topics