Lung Cancer Carcinogenesis

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Lung cancer carcinogenesis occurs when there is uncontrolled growth of mutated cells in one or both lungs. The cancer develops from mutations in normal cells; the mutated cells form tumors and interfere with the oxygen flow to the body via the blood stream. Tumors develop because of field cancerization, which is the same consecutive genetic and morphologic changes that form an aggressive tumor. Not having oxygen flow can make it very hard for a person to breathe and may cause their body and brain not to function correctly. Tumor suppressor genes are destructive growth regulators that turn off cellular multiplying to the normal cells by repairing DNA or introducing apoptosis. Apoptosis is the cell’s suicidal functions that destroys the cell …show more content…
The lung tissue cells repeatedly become more mutated as the mutated cells divide with DNA. As lung cancer progresses, the tumor can travel via blood vessels to other portions of our body. The progression of this stage results in metastasis, which are the secondary sites for lung cancer. The most common sites of metastasis are the bones, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Lung carcinomas kills most of its victims, and is the most common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer normally does not start showing signs unless it’s later stages. Most common signs and symptoms are: “Smokers cough” – a persistent cough that gets continuously worse, chest pain, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, raspy voice, recurring pneumonia or bronchitis, neck and face swelling, weight loss, decreased appetite and energy. Many victims of lung cancer experience extreme pain, due to compression of nerves, bloods vessels and other vital organs. Treatments for lung cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, Surgery is usually reserved for early stage, solitary lung cancers without evidence of lymph node involvement. Current research for lung cancer is concerned on targeted therapies, improved screenings, better surgical techniques, radiation therapy, and reduced tobacco …show more content…
These advances will expand the treatment options for oncologists, so they can combine chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery for the treatment of patients with any stage of lung cancer.
Improved screening is necessary, because lung cancers are most curable in its early stages. There are low dose CAT scans to screen for lung cancer, and the US preventative services task force has approved the use of this scan for current or ex- smokers with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Advances in imaging, such as PET/CT scans, may result in detecting small lung carcinomas.
The main prevention measure for lung cancer is reducing the use of tobacco. Having the best methods for this detection is a redeeming quality, but the best way to prevent lung cancer is reducing cigarette use. For more than half of the patients diagnosed with lung cancer, it is exceedingly preventable. Even if diagnosed, quitting smoking can help people live longer, reduce side effects, and decrease the chance of recurring lung cancer. Lung cancer can be prevented for the most part, and should be taken

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