Eclipsed Conformation And Conformational Isomerism
Conformational isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism whereby the isomers are interconverted by rotations about the single bonds. There be terms used below such as eclipsed conformation, staggered conformation,dihedral angle and a few more. Eclipsed conformation is the conformation whereby the C-H bonds on one carbon is directly aligned with the C-H bonds of the adjacent carbon. When the C-H bond of one carbon bisects the H-C-H bond on the adjacent carbon, it is known as staggered conformation. Dihedral angle is the angle which separates the the bond on carbon atom from another bond of the adjacent atom. The conformer is each possible structure of the isomerism. Conformational analysis is defined as the analysis of changes of energy which occurs when a molecule undergoes rotations around the single bonds. There are two types of drawing of structural formula used to do conformational analysis to represent the structures which are the Newman projection formula and the Sawhorse formula. Newman projection is the end-on representations for the conformations whereas, the sawhorse formula are like the dash-wedge three dimensional formulas. Throughout this assignment, Newman projection is used.
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The cis-trans isomerism are also stereoisomers because they only differ in the arrangement of their atoms in space from each other. A cis and trans-disubstitued cyclohexane can be identified by looking at the position of the substituents attached to. For trans, one of the substituents is connected by an upper bond and the other one by lower bond whereas, for cis, both the substituents are connected either by upper bonds or lower bonds. An example of di-substituted cyclohexanes is 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane. 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane can exist as trans 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane and also as cis