Down Syndrome : A Genetic Chromosomal Disorder Essay

2487 Words Dec 1st, 2016 10 Pages
Down Syndrome is a genetic chromosomal disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21, which affects both the physical and mental development (Staff, 2014). According to the National Down Syndrome Society in the United States, Down syndrome occurs 1 out of 691 births and there are about 400,000 people living with Down syndrome in the US today (National Down Syndrome Society). It is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is associated with a number of deleterious phenotypes (Frances K. Wiseman, 2009). Individuals with Down syndrome are affected by these phenotypes to a variable extent; understanding the cause of this variation is a key challenge (Ambreen Asim, 2015). According to Peter Crosta’s M.A. online article on the Medical New Todays, Down syndrome is one of the most frequent forms of mental retardation and is characterized by distinct physical characteristics, unique health issues, and variability in cognitive development (Crosta, 2016). Specifically, Down syndrome characteristics presents as: eyes that have an upward slant, oblique fissures, epicanthic skin folds on the inner corner, and white spots on the iris, low muscle tone, small statues and short neck, flat nasal bridge, deep creases across the center of the palm, large space between large and second toe and a single flexion furrow of the fifth finger (Crosta, 2016).
Additionally, Down syndrome usually causes cognitive development profiles indicative of…

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