Essay about Distillation and Fraction Distillation Lab Report

2398 Words Feb 16th, 2012 10 Pages
By: Sean Polson
05 September 2011
Organic Chemistry Lab: Experiment 1
Section 2 – 12:30 to 2:20
Distillation and Fractional Distillation

Distillation and Fraction Distillations
Purpose:
The purpose of distillation is to purify a liquid. Distillations are use to purify contaminates out of water to obtain clean pure water, as well as, to separate mixtures of liquids into their individual components; e.g. methanol and water.
Objective:
Distill methanol from water using a simple distillation apparatus and fractional distillation apparatus to determine which is a more accurate form of distillation.
Chemical reaction and mechanism:
N/A
Procedure:
This experiment is conducted in three phases: 1) Phase I: Simple
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Additionally the boiling point temperature was captured at the point when the solution in the boiling flask first began to boil. This temperature was gathered in hopes to compare with the known and documented boiling points of methanol and water in chemistry encyclopedias. However, this temperature was found useless as the location of the thermometer was at the top of the distillation apparatus and the boiling occurred at the bottom of the apparatus, thus the boiling point temperature gathered was inaccurate. The temperature that was being gathered was the vapor temperature once the vapor finally reached the top of the apparatus.

A 25 mL graduated cylinder was used to collect the 1 mL sample of the distilled solution as it dropped from the distillation apparatus. Due to lack of 10 mL graduated cylinders, a potential error could be that too much or too little solution was gathered; not an exact 1 mL sample was collected due to size of cylinder. This solution was then weighed and ran through the refractive index machine. An additional graduated cylinder was used to collect the next 1 mL sample while the 1st sample was being weighed and refractive index collected. To weigh the 1 mL sample, a small beaker was set in a zero gravity scale to be calibrated to zero, once calibrated, the 1 mL sample was transferred from the graduated cylinder to the beaker and

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