DNA Modification In Genetic Engineering

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DNA Modification

DNA is the ultimate carrier of an organism’s genetic information. The particular sequence of amino acids determines a being’s height, eye color, susceptible diseases, and precise blueprint. Recent studies have shown that this genetic outline does not have to be permanent. New fields of science such as epigenetics and germ line editing are slowly reshaping the status quo of genetics. Genetic modification is no longer limited to food and animals because scientists are discovering new ways to adjust human DNA. DNA modification is an emerging study, and there are two main types that may hold the answers to eliminating prevalent diseases in the world today. The genetics field is an ever-changing sector of science. Since the beginning
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The Human Genome project was an international research program that was able to map out all of the gene locations of human DNA (“An Overview of the Human Genome Project”). This DNA map can be thought of as an instructional guide to how a human develops and functions. Knowing every base pair and amino acid gave scientists a look at which locations on the DNA were causing certain genetic diseases. This information helped develop new treatments and research in genetic counseling. The Human Genome project inspired scientists to attempt the simplest technique for repairing: fixing what is broken. If a gene contains an undesirable characteristic, tweaking the gene to make it normal is the most basic solution. Luhan Yang, a Harvard recruit from Beijing, is one of the leading researchers in Germline Editing, another name for DNA modification. Yang proposes: “By editing the DNA of these cells or the embryo itself, it could be possible to correct disease genes and pass those genetic fixes on to future generations” (Regalado). Changing the DNA is a realistic possibility for the future of medicine thanks to the discoveries made by the Human Genome …show more content…
There are many different methods of DNA modification under testing, but two processes in particular have been gaining attention in the medical world. The first is that of Luhan Yang who was mentioned earlier. Yang and her colleagues have been making crucial headway on an innovation called CRISPR. CRISPR involves replacing parts of the DNA with proteins and is already widely used by biologists as a tool to alter DNA down to the level of a single letter (Pak). Its precision has the potential to offer the best approach for gene therapy in people with destructive illnesses. A CRISPR experiment that is currently underway is being conducted at MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research. A colony of marmoset monkeys is representing an accurate model of human brain diseases by editing the DNA of the monkey embryos. Scientists are hoping to alter a gene called SHANK3 in the monkeys, which involves neuron communication. This particular gene is linked to autism when it is damaged (Regalado). Current experiments show that making edits in DNA works about twenty percent of the time, but scientists are confident that this number will increase with time and further experimentation. The CRISPR technique shows the potential to someday rid the world of diseases like sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer’s, and

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