Concrete is a building material that looks like stone. The Latin word “concretus” means to grow together. Concrete is a composite material，composed of coarse granular material (the aggregate or filler) entrenched in a solid matrix of material by (the cement or binder) that fills the space between the aggregate particles and pastes them together. Depending on what kind of binder is used, concrete can be divided into nonhydraulic cement concrete (made of nonhydraulic cement), hydraulic cement concrete (made of hydraulic cement), asphalt concrete (made of asphalt), and polymer concrete (made of polymer). In fact, the concrete is the oldest used in human history. as early as around 6500 B.C nonhydraulic cement concretes were used by the Syrians and spread through Egypt, the Middle East, Crete, Cyprus, and ancient Greece. A Babylonians Syrians used clay as the bonding material while The Egyptians used gypsum .
Now Concrete is the most widely used material in the world used for many different structures such as pavements, dams, bridges, and building frames, infrastructure and private buildings construction. Understanding the basic behaviors of concrete is essential for civil engineering students to become civil engineering professionals .
1.2 Concrete Background
1.2.1 Concrete Microstructure
Concrete has become a universal building material because of its versatility and economy. It is comprised of three phases which include the aggregate, hydrated cement paste , and the…