Chronic Kidney Disease Case Study
CKD affects between 10-16% of the adult population in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (Matsushita et al., 2013). Additionally, the disease places a substantial burden on the healthcare system, as well as the patient and their caretakers. CKD is associated with a reduced quality of life, as well as increased morbidity and mortality (Schulman, Vanholder, & Niwa, 2014).
The function of your kidneys is to maintain the balance of minerals and electrolytes in your body, such as calcium, sodium, and potassium. The kidneys also filter fluids and wastes from your body in the form of urine which is then removed from the body during micturition. CKD is diagnosed in stages ranging from one to five. The stages are determined by the Glomerular Filtration Rate [GFR]. The GFR is the rate at which the kidney can relieve the body of toxins or excess fluids and is determined by the quantity of nephrons [the functional filtration units of the kidney]. The GFR is decreased the further progressed the disease becomes due to the destruction of the nephrons (Porth & Porth, …show more content…
The progression of CKD follows a vicious cycle of accumulated uremic toxins [indoxyl sulfate] which result in the corresponding progression of nephron loss (Schulman et al., 2014). Uptake of indoxyl sulfate stimulates the transformation in the proximal convoluted tubule of an excess of a profibrotic cytokine [a chemical that plays a role in inflammation and fibroblast deposition] in the renal parenchyma [the functional parts of the kidney]. This ultimately leads to “glomerulosclerosis [a scarring or hardening of the glomerulus] and interstitial fibrosis [an accumulation of collagen fibers in the tubules, loop, duct…]” (Schulman et al.,