Chronic Kidney Disease Case Study

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Chronic Kidney Disease is also known as Chronic Kidney Failure. This diagnosis describes a set of renal-degenerative symptoms and stages that eventually lead to dialysis, kidney transplant, and/or death. What makes chronic kidney disease so dangerous is its innocuity. Its early symptoms are often nonspecific and can appear to be from other illnesses. Usually, by the time the kidney damage is noticed due to loss of function, it is irreversible. Due to advancing medical technology, improved dialysis techniques, and greater quality of medical care, patients have been afforded increasingly longer lives; paradoxically, this, in turn, has led to an increasing incidence of End Stage Renal Disease diagnoses (Tsai et al., 2016). Many autoimmune disorders …show more content…
CKD affects between 10-16% of the adult population in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (Matsushita et al., 2013). Additionally, the disease places a substantial burden on the healthcare system, as well as the patient and their caretakers. CKD is associated with a reduced quality of life, as well as increased morbidity and mortality (Schulman, Vanholder, & Niwa, 2014).
Pathophysiology
The function of your kidneys is to maintain the balance of minerals and electrolytes in your body, such as calcium, sodium, and potassium. The kidneys also filter fluids and wastes from your body in the form of urine which is then removed from the body during micturition. CKD is diagnosed in stages ranging from one to five. The stages are determined by the Glomerular Filtration Rate [GFR]. The GFR is the rate at which the kidney can relieve the body of toxins or excess fluids and is determined by the quantity of nephrons [the functional filtration units of the kidney]. The GFR is decreased the further progressed the disease becomes due to the destruction of the nephrons (Porth & Porth,
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The progression of CKD follows a vicious cycle of accumulated uremic toxins [indoxyl sulfate] which result in the corresponding progression of nephron loss (Schulman et al., 2014). Uptake of indoxyl sulfate stimulates the transformation in the proximal convoluted tubule of an excess of a profibrotic cytokine [a chemical that plays a role in inflammation and fibroblast deposition] in the renal parenchyma [the functional parts of the kidney]. This ultimately leads to “glomerulosclerosis [a scarring or hardening of the glomerulus] and interstitial fibrosis [an accumulation of collagen fibers in the tubules, loop, duct…]” (Schulman et al.,

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