Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes Essay
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter
The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the energy of particles and the forces that act between them. ideal gas: an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
(based on the following 5 assumptions)
Most of the volume occupied by a gas is empty space accounts for the lower density of gases compared with that of liquids or solids and explains the fact that gases are easily compressed.
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To describe a gas fully, you need to state four measurable quantities: volume, temperature, number of molecules, and pressure.
Pressure and Force
Pressure is defined as the force per unit area on a surface.
The SI Unit for force is the newton (N), which is the force that will increase the speed of a one kilogram mass by one meter per second each second it is applied.
The pressure of the atmosphere can be thought of as caused by the weight of the gases that compose the atmosphere.
Barometer is a device used to measure atmospheric pressure
Standard Temperature and Pressure are conditions that scientists have agreed on of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0 C
Units of Pressure
Unit |Symbol |Definition/Relationship | |Pascal |Pa |SI pressure unit
1 Pa = 1 N m2 | |Millimeter of mercury |mm Hg |pressure that supports a 1 mm mercury column in a barometer | |Atmosphere |atm |- average atmospheric pressure at sea level and 0 C
1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 1.013 25 x 105 Pa = 101.325 kPa | |
The Gas Laws
The Gas Laws are simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of a gas.
The Gas Laws
Boyle’s Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship
The pressure of a gas is