Emperor Penguins: The Penguins

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Adult emperor penguins weigh from 50 to 100 pounds and varies by sex, with males weighing more than females. It is the fifth heaviest living bird species, after only the larger varieties of ratite (CRC Handbook of Avian Body masses by John B. F Dunning. CRC press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5). Like all penguin species, emperor penguins have streamlined bodies to minimize drag while swimming, and wings that are more like stiff, flat flippers (Williams, Tony D. (1995). The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X. pp 3). The tongue is equipped with rear-facing barbs to prevent prey from escaping when caught.
Like for many wild mammals and birds, prolonged periods of feeding and fasting is normal phenomenon
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In addition, penguins entirely replace their whole plumage each year and must spend a long time fasting ashore because the consequent reduction in thermal insulation precludes staying in cold antarctic and subantarctic waters for feeding. The duration of fasting of molt varies from 2-5 weeks. (Klemens Pütz, Joachim Plötz (1991), Moulting starvation in emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsten) chicks
Polar Biology. Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 253–258).
In order to keep themselves warm and dry, the feathers of penguin are very important. In frigid ocean water. The penguin’s molt is sometimes called a catastrophic molt, because unlike most birds that will molt a few feathers at a time, penguins molt all of their feathers all at once (Webster RK, Aguilar RF, , Conayne P, De Sousa D, Sriram A, Svensson CM, Gartrell BD.
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Galápagos penguin, which usually goes through two molts per year. The adult emperor penguin has deep black dorsal feathers, covering the head, chin, throat, back, dorsal part of the flippers, and tail. The black plumage is sharply delineated from the light-colored plumage elsewhere. The underparts of the wings and belly are white, becoming pale yellow in the upper breast, while the ear patches are bright yellow. The upper mandible of the 8 cm (3 in) long bill is black, and the lower mandible can be pink, orange or lilac. (Williams, Tony D. (1995). The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X, p 152). In juveniles, the auricular patches, chin and throat are white, while its bill is black. Emperor penguin chicks are typically covered with silver-grey down and have black heads and white masks. A chick with all-white plumage was found in 2001, but was not considered to be an albino as it did not have pink eyes. Chicks weigh around 315 g (11 oz) after hatching, and fledge when they reach about 50% of adult

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