Inequalities In Schools

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All in all, it was pointed out that differences and inequalities exist between more affluent towns such as West Hartford and less affluent neighborhoods such as East Hartford and Hartford. Students attending schools in more affluent neighborhoods have better test scores and higher achievement goals than students studying in less wealthy districts. It was also shown that schools in the more affluent districts have better funding and resources due to the local property taxes that creates inequality. But what are the underlying causes for such a great achievement gap? Why students attending schools in more affluent neighborhoods perform better in schools as opposed to students in neighborhood schools? Is it simply about funding?
Jonathan Kozol
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Claiming that “it is inadequate merely to debate the level and distribution of funding, as the “old” school finance [“black box model”] has usually done. Instead it is necessary to develop an improved approach to school resources—including not just money but all of the conditions, practices, and personnel within schools that might enhance outcomes—as well as an improved approach to judging the effectiveness of school resources” (Grubb 25). Schools districts uses their funding differently, and the way how they spend their financial resources is reported in a number of categories such as program expenditure, food services, support services, student transportation services, school based administration, etc. Despite of the broad categories, a comparison can be made between West Hartford School District and East Hartford School District in terms of how they spend their money that can account for the unequal educational outcomes. Based on data, East Hartford School District spends more money on program expenditure (67%) than West Hartford (62%), and it also spends more money on food services (11%) than West Hartford (9%). There is also a significant difference in the amount of money spent on school based administration which is higher in the West Hartford Schools District. But what is really striking is the amount of …show more content…
Students who live in West Hartford and whose parents’ income level is higher have better test scores as opposed to students living in East Hartford and Hartford. According to Kozol, unequal educational outcomes are caused due to the fact that schools that are located in less affluent neighborhoods have less financial resources, thus they are unable to provide the same opportunities for students as schools in more wealthy neighborhoods (Kozol 168). However, Grubb claims that not only does the school’s budget determine inequalities but also how financial resources are used, and he argues that schools in more affluent neighborhoods allocate money more properly (Grubb 25). Finally, Noguera argues that social capital leads to unequal educational outcomes because parents in more affluent neighborhoods have the power to put pressure on the school, hence they can have their demands fulfilled (Noguera 33). All in all, there are some theories emphasizing the importance of money as a cause for inequalities, however, one must point out that it does not solely account for unequal educational outcomes. The current educational system is unfair because the funding is not based on student learning needs but is based on local property taxes, which vary widely, leading to inequalities between schools that are

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