Cancer Promotes Tumor Development And Metastasis Essay

1883 Words Nov 29th, 2016 8 Pages
Cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases. It is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and a collapse of all multicellular co-operations (Zhang, et al., 2016; Zhang and Sun, 2015; Zhong, et al., 2016). Cancer promotes tumor development and metastasis (Ahmed, et al., 2013; Zhu, et al., 2016). Tumors are characterized by six essential alterations in cell physiology. These are self-sufficiency in growth signals, continued angiogenesis, insensitivity to growth inhibition signals, dodging of apoptosis, boundless replicative potential, and tissue invasion and metastasis (Zhou, et al., 2016; Zhu, et al., 2016). These are common in most tumors and the latter two are the most lethal trademarks of malignant tumors (Zhong, et al., 2016).

Incidence
Liver cancer is primarily known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is the fifth largest cause of cancer in men, while for women it is the eighth largest cancer (Zheng, et al., 2016; Zhi, et al., 2016; Zhong, et al., 2016). In recent years, the HCC incidences have increased worldwide, especially in China and sub-Saharan Africa. In Central and Southern Europe as well as in the North American continent, a dramatic increase in the HCC cases has been observed (Zhang, et al., 2016; Zhang, et al., 2016).

Mortality
Liver cancer is the second leading reason for cancer-related deaths all over the world, with an incidence of over 100, 000 new cases per year and a 4% mortality rate (Wang, et al., 2016). Liver cancer is…

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