Spacer Research Papers

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CRISPR is the acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat. This term is used to describe the unique organization of DNA sequences that are partially palindromic and are found in genomes and other microorganisms. The CRISPR immune system protects bacteria from ongoing viral infection. CRISPRs are variable sequences called spacers. The spacers are made from DNA of the virus that already attacked the host bacteria. The spacers serve as a sort of genetic memory of the previous infections. If another infection of the same type were to come then the CRISPR system will break apart any part of the DNA that matches that of that infection. If there is a virus that is not seen then a new spacer is created and added to the chain …show more content…
She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in CHemistry at Pomona College in 1985. She received her Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Harvard University on ribozymes under the mentorship of Jack W. Szostak at Harvard University. She did her postdoctoral work with Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She was promoted to Henry Ford II professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale in 2000. Two years later she accepted a faculty position at the University of California, Berkeley as a Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology so she would be closer to her family and the synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her initial work to solve large RNA structures led to other studies of structure on HDV ribozymes, and the IRES, and protein-RNA complexes like the Signal recognition particle. Now her labs focus on collecting a mechanistic understanding of biological processes involving RNA. these studies are broken up into three different sections. The CRISPR system, RNA interference, and translational control by MicroRNAs.She has collected the scientific community together to talk about and prevent the line of using CRISPR to genetically modify embryos to anything the parents want or basically misuse CRISPR to make perfect people. She has also been fighting for control of what could ultimately be a lucrative intellectual property right to the editing gnome project. When 2012 Doudna and her colleagues; which is one area of how the discovery of the CRISPR system was not done by one person but was created by many people; created a new discovery that would reduce the time and work needed to edit genomic DNA. The discovery came from the protein Cas9 found in the Streptococcus bacteria CRISPR immune system that works in some way like scissors. The protein attacks the DNA viruses and then cuts it

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