Bronfenbrenner's Theory Of Self Determination Theory

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According to self-determination theory (SDT), the three previously identified psychological needs affect motivation. As previously identified, learner motivation is either intrinsic or extrinsic; with some learners being a-motivated (experience no motivation). However, Deci and Ryan (2002) suggest that SDT encourages intrinsic motivation in all learners. As autonomy is central to this theory of self, Deci and Ryan argue learners have needs and desires, which results in an intrinsic locus of motivation. They proceed to argue that underachievement is a result of the classroom regiment and time schedule; which occasionally results in teachers rejected learners ' requests for assistance (deCharms, 1983). This is problematic for students with low …show more content…
KS4 students are a heterogeneous group, with a diverse range of needs, personal beliefs and socio-cultural factors that influence locus of motivation and academic achievement (PISA, 2009; DfE, 2014). The). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological validity (1989) gives reason to the diverse individual needs and experiences of individuals at KS4. Like SCT, it determines that the environment has influence over a learners ' behaviour. Though the Bronfenbrenner’s model uses five systems, the microsystem, which is the classroom, peers and teachers is mostly relevant to learners motivation and students do not behave the same way in each system. His theory is supported by Rahal (2010) who suggest numerous social-cultural factors influence underachievement and identifies the need for strategies to effectively address these. Over the past few decades, practitioners and theoreticians in the field of education, began using the term social justice education in increased numbers (Enns and Sinacore 2005; Adams, et al. 2007; 2010; Sensoy and DiAngelo 2011). These argue that without integrating elements of social justice education into models aimed at reducing, managing, and resolving the diverse and conflicting socio-cultural factors KS4 students’ experience, academic underachievement within this learner group will persist. Consequently, the concept intersectionality as a framework can be used to effectively address the individual and diverse socio-cultural influences of KS4 learners such as the persistent increase of depression, conduct disorders and self-harm within this learner group (Collishaw, et al. 2004; Nuffield Foundation,

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