Peloponnesian War Analysis

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Athenian War Strategy: Peloponnesian War
Thucydides described the 21 years long history of the Peloponnesian War (431-411BC), between an alliance of Spartans and Athenian, the powerful city state of ancient Greece (war formally ended in 404 BC). This war was the result Athenian rising power because ‘the rise of new power always create uncertainty and anxieties' . Athenian and her alliance dramatically increased their power after thirty years’ peace treaty. Both alliances "refused to give up their position under the pressure of three of the strongest motives, fear, honor, and interest. For war, Fear was the motive for Sparta whereas, honor and interest were on the Athenian side. The immediate cause of war between these two powerful city states
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Athenian wanted to settle differences with Spartans by ‘arbitration' and requested for ‘not to dissolve the treaty, or to break oaths, And determine to ‘defend themselves at land’ and ‘defeat at sea’ in case of hostilities’ begin by the Spartans. Maintain its alliance strong and ‘not depriving them’ from Athenian service was their additional objectives.
Ways (Concepts)
To defend themselves at the land they had adopted a strategic defensive posture. They constructed ‘four-mile long Phaleric Wall and a wall around the city’ , and order to the citizen for ‘carry their property from the country, not to go out to battle, and come to the city and guard it. They fought wars of exhaustion on along the coastline by utilizing superior sea power, and ‘sent out cavalry to prevent raids on the lands near the city from the enemy.'
To defeat an opponent at sea, they maintain the powerful fleet, deny enemy to utilize a sea line of communication and attack on the enemy fleet at sea and at cost. They constructed and equipped own fleet, and reinforced their sea power by a ‘Corcyraean and other allies fleets. They frequently attack/raid on various parts of Peloponnesian costs. The deserted island was fortified to use as a base for these sea
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They were already superior sea power, and focus has given rise more sea fleet. They compensate their weakness at land power by raising cavalry and other ground forces with the help of own and alliance support, and able to build "the largest army of Athenians ever assembled. Athenian able to mobilize mercenary to strengthen their army. Spartans King summarizes Athenian means to wage war as "Athenian have an extraordinary familiarity with a sea, and who are in the highest state of preparation in every other department; with wealth private and public, with ship and horses, and hoplites, and a population such as non-other Hellenic place can equal.”
Balance strategy will not guarantee the outcome of the war, as Clausewitz mentions- Danger, exertion, uncertainty, and chance will make up the climate of war. The Athenian strategy was Suitable to achieve desired ends, ways they planned were acceptable and seemed to be highly workable. Similarly, it appears feasible with what resources they had available. The disastrous effect of Plague, the untimely demise of Pericles, one of the experienced commander and disastrous expedition to Sicily, where nearly forty thousand Athenian allies perished, brought the most advanced Greek state into final

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