Asthma Case Study

1646 Words 7 Pages
NURS1006 Written Assignment

Asthma is a condition of the airways that affects millions of Australians and while the incidence is increasing, management strategies such as the written asthma action plan allow individuals to take control of their condition (Australian Asthma Handbook, 2016). This assignment will look at asthma’s common risk factors, the pathophysiology of the disease, while exploring the recent research in management of acute exacerbations and developing an asthma action plan for Sara from the case scenario provided.

One of the common risk factors for asthma is air pollutants, such as fragrances (Kaufman & Kent, 2015). A study conducted in Canada observed the effects that fragrances had on moderate asthmatics (Vethanayagam
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If a patient is already a diagnosed asthmatic, the rhinovirus can induce an attack through causing higher levels of neutrophils to the bronchi than in normal patients (Zhu et al., 2014). This severe macrophage intrusion, and cellular inflammation creates a higher risk for the patient to develop an asthma attack (Zhu et al., 2014). In patients without asthma, having repeated HRV infections with a recurrent wheeze causes airway inflammation and remodelling eventually leading to an asthma diagnosis if not treated (Jamieson, Warner, Leigh, & Proud, 2015). Therefore, the rhinovirus can be considered as a common risk factor for asthma through its ability to have a significant impact on the upper respiratory tract (Jamieson, Warner, Leigh, & Proud, …show more content…
In a patient experiencing a severe attack they will be using accessory muscles and will have oxygen saturations between 90-94% (Australian Asthma Handbook, 2016). However, in a life threatening attack the patient will be in reduced consciousness, have signs of cyanosis and will be presenting an oxygen saturation below 90% (Australian Asthma Handbook, 2016). Immediately, if the level of severity is considered to be life threatening, the patient will be administered a bronchodilator, such as salbutamol with this being administered on continuous nebulization (Australian Asthma Handbook, 2016). Continuous nebulization should be used, as research by the Global Initiative for Asthma has shown that this method has been found to reduce hospitalizations and improve lung function, more than intermittent nebulization (Global Initiative for Asthma, 2016). Additionally, when the oxygen saturations are less than 95%, oxygen therapy should be started at 6L, because research suggests that using low dose oxygen therapy is associated with better physiological outcomes than high flow therapy (Global Initiative for Asthma,

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