Ap European History Outline Chapter 10 Essay example

5638 Words Nov 3rd, 2012 23 Pages
Mr. Dunbar
AP European History
Chapter 10 Outline: Renaissance and Discovery

Section One: The Renaissance in Italy * Section Overview * Jacob Burckhardt, a Swiss historian, described the Renaissance as the “prototype of the modern world” in his book Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) * In Italy blossomed new secular and scientific views * People became to approach the world empirically and draw rational conclusions based on observation * Burckhardt saw the emergence of the modern world emerge from that of the pre-modern, or medieval, period * Some criticize Burckhardt for overlooking the continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance * Scholars agree
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y that stressed the dignity of humankind, individual, and secularism * humanists as the champions of Catholic Christianity, opposing the pagan teachings of Aristotle * humanism is a form of historic scholarship adopted to promote a sense of civic responsibility and political liberty * Paul Kristellar, a famous historian, believes that humanism was not philosophy or value system, but an educational program built on rhetoric and scholarship * Most scholars agree that humanism was the scholarly study of Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers, both for its own sake and in the hope of reviving ancient norms and values * Humanists advocated the studia humanitatis, a liberal arts program of study embracing , rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy * First humanists were orators and poets, wrote literature in classical languages and vernacular, taught rhetoric and grammar at universities, and worked at princely courts as secretaries, speechwriters, and diplomats * Humanists ideas were spread throughout Italy when the Byzantine, Greek scholar Chrysoloras took a position as the head of classical learning at a university in Florence * Early humanists * Francesco Petrarch—the father of humanism * Wrote personal letters to Cicero, Livy, Virgil, and Horace * Wrote a Latin Epic poem, Africa, a tribute to a Roman general, and biographies of

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