And Catalytic Mechanisms: Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate

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Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate

Western Governors University
ENZYMES
• Are proteins that act as catalysts, and carry out chemical reactions.
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• Sucrose can be broken down into glucose and fructose to produce energy.
• Glucose is broken down into a pathway called “glycolysis” which produces pyruvate. Pyruvate then goes into the Citric Acid Cycle and produces ATP which is the energy needed in our bodies.
• The first 2 steps of fructose breakdown is unique to fructose.
• When Fructose is broken down, the enzyme fructokinase converts fructose to fructose-1-phosphate. An enzyme called Aldolase-B converts fructose-1-phosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde. DHAP and glyderaldehyde are then able to enter glycolysis to start the process of converting them into energy or ATP which is needed in our bodies. (Hudon-Miller, Enzymes and fructose breakdown)
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI)
• It is an inherited condition that affects the body’s ability to digest the sugar fructose.
• Mutations in the ALDOB gene cause hereditary fructose
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• Elevated lactate leads to tissue hypoxia, hypoperfusion, and possible damage. (Wikipedia, 2013)
CITRIC ACID CYCLE
• 3 types of molecules can feed into the Citric acid cycle: Glucose which goes into glycolysis and turns into pyruvate and then transformed into Acetyl CoA, Fatty acids, and Amino acids.
• These molecules can be broken down to form Acetyl Coa, which then goes into the Citric acid cycle to produce NADH and FADH2 which participates in the electron-transport chain to eventually produce ATP for the body’s energy.
• Citric acid cycle does not actually produce ATP from the cycle, but produces “materials” that are essential to the production of ATP.
• Citric acid cycle is central to aerobic metabolism because it brings all the broken down energy sources (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids) together as Acetyl-CoA to be metabolized into something that can be used for ATP production.
CITRIC ACID CYCLE
• Hypothetical defects can occur in the Citric acid cycle:
• An enzyme that malfunctions = affects the manufacturing of products and the ability of the other enzymes in the cycle to

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