# Analysis Of Hardy And Weinberg

Godfrey Hardy, a mathematician, and Wilhem Weinberg, a physician in Germany, formulated a probability equation about the frequencies of genes that are inheritable within a gene pool. They analyzed that the frequencies of alleles. Hardy and Weinberg made an equation about genetic variance of a population at equilibrium. They postulated that allele or genes should be stable or equal with no disturbing factors. For a generation be able to remain constant and reach the equilibrium within generations, they postulated about how alleles behave that acts in a population. With these assumptions, Hardy and Weinberg determined the definition of evolution within a gene pool. They defined that for an evolution would not exist within

*…show more content…*

Therefore, they created equations and principles regarding the amount of genetic variation in a population. As Hardy and Weinberg developed an equation, p2+2pq+q2=1, to calculate the probability of the genotype frequencies in a population. Thus, it helps to calculate the next generations expected frequency. In Hardy-Weinberg equation, p signifies the dominant allele and q as a recessive allele in the pair of alleles. Therefore, we can conclude that (p) x (p) = p2 which is homozygous dominant. Similar to q2, it is equal to (q) x (q) that determines the homozygous recessive allele. The middle term is 2pq which signifies a heterozygous allele. Therefore, let A and a be a controlled pair alleles, we can calculate the total number of p (dominant alleles), we have to remember that in heterozygous, it carries one dominant allele. Therefore p = AA +1/2Aa. Likewise in all the recessive alleles, q= aa +1/2Aa. With this equation, p2+2pq+q2=1, we can say that the sum of alleles should be equal to 1 or 100%. If we used the observe traits we can conclude it is a phenotype frequency, we can use the equation p + q = 1. If we obtain any alleles such as p or q, we can subtract it to 1. Therefore, we can calculate the expected genotype frequencies. For

*…show more content…*

Its domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. These categorizations helps us to know better the position of an organism through its phylogenetic taxonomic clusters. The phylogeny of organisms is the common ancestry of the organisms. There might some phylogenetic that is hard to track due to an extinction of species. Therefore, the phylogeny is based on hypothesis and inferences from the past and for the future. So far, there are two methods to approach phylogeny of an organism. It is either cladistics or phenetics. Phenetics is based on the number of taxonomies. Cladistics is based on the phylogenetic systems. Cladistics is based upon the common ancestors derived from its characteristics called synamorphies. Phenetics is based upon similarities and differences traits of organisms. These are based on the objective observation of traits between