# Analysis Of Hardy And Weinberg

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Lab 1- Hardy Weinberg
Godfrey Hardy, a mathematician, and Wilhem Weinberg, a physician in Germany, formulated a probability equation about the frequencies of genes that are inheritable within a gene pool. They analyzed that the frequencies of alleles. Hardy and Weinberg made an equation about genetic variance of a population at equilibrium. They postulated that allele or genes should be stable or equal with no disturbing factors. For a generation be able to remain constant and reach the equilibrium within generations, they postulated about how alleles behave that acts in a population. With these assumptions, Hardy and Weinberg determined the definition of evolution within a gene pool. They defined that for an evolution would not exist within
Therefore, they created equations and principles regarding the amount of genetic variation in a population. As Hardy and Weinberg developed an equation, p2+2pq+q2=1, to calculate the probability of the genotype frequencies in a population. Thus, it helps to calculate the next generations expected frequency. In Hardy-Weinberg equation, p signifies the dominant allele and q as a recessive allele in the pair of alleles. Therefore, we can conclude that (p) x (p) = p2 which is homozygous dominant. Similar to q2, it is equal to (q) x (q) that determines the homozygous recessive allele. The middle term is 2pq which signifies a heterozygous allele. Therefore, let A and a be a controlled pair alleles, we can calculate the total number of p (dominant alleles), we have to remember that in heterozygous, it carries one dominant allele. Therefore p = AA +1/2Aa. Likewise in all the recessive alleles, q= aa +1/2Aa. With this equation, p2+2pq+q2=1, we can say that the sum of alleles should be equal to 1 or 100%. If we used the observe traits we can conclude it is a phenotype frequency, we can use the equation p + q = 1. If we obtain any alleles such as p or q, we can subtract it to 1. Therefore, we can calculate the expected genotype frequencies. For …show more content…
Its domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. These categorizations helps us to know better the position of an organism through its phylogenetic taxonomic clusters. The phylogeny of organisms is the common ancestry of the organisms. There might some phylogenetic that is hard to track due to an extinction of species. Therefore, the phylogeny is based on hypothesis and inferences from the past and for the future. So far, there are two methods to approach phylogeny of an organism. It is either cladistics or phenetics. Phenetics is based on the number of taxonomies. Cladistics is based on the phylogenetic systems. Cladistics is based upon the common ancestors derived from its characteristics called synamorphies. Phenetics is based upon similarities and differences traits of organisms. These are based on the objective observation of traits between

• ## The Origin Of Species: The Hardy Weinberg Priquation Theory

After calculating the expected allele and genotype frequencies, a Chi Square Analysis was performed for each locus using a goodness of fit test that used 1 degree of freedom. Using the data from the Chi Square Analysis, we can compare it to the p-value to see how our class data fits with the expected genotypes. We can then determine if the null hypothesis is rejected or…

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• ## Hardy-Weinberg Theory Research Paper

The Hardy-Weinberg Principle states, “Allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant” in each generation if evolutionary influences are not present. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle can be applied to a population through evolutionary forces such as mutation, migration, non-random mating, genetic drift, and natural selection. The equilibrium determines gene and allele frequency ratios by using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, p^2+2pq+p^2=1. The equation can factor in evolutionary influences, for example, in some populations, people who are recessive for a particular trait have an advantage. In one case, the Sickle Cell Anemia disease “makes people who carry it resistant to malaria, a serious illness carried by mosquitos” (Learn.…

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• ## To The Bitter End Case Study

Joseline Jacamo To the Bitter End: A Case Examining the Genetics of PTC Sensitivity First part : Questions 1. What L.H Snyder is inferred by using “Mendelian marker” is to convey that all Mendelian traits which is inherited from the parent and pass down to its offspring can be utilized as a maker. 2. Some question that Dr. Snyder could ask is “How would you know if PTC is an inherited trait?. In addition, “How are you going to test if PTC is an inherited trait or not?.…

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• ## Misconceptions Of Evolution And Natural Selection

2014). Darwin’s theory of evolution focuses on two concepts, the adaptation of organism and natural selection. According to Darwin in the first edition of The Origins of Species, he explains “decedent with modification” which refers to the different traits that organisms have from their ancestors (Than 2015). The theory explains that all organisms are related. All organisms come from the same ancestor, the differences in appearance derive from genetic mutation that allowed for organisms of the species to adapt to the new environment they lived in and therefore creating new species that differs from its ancestors.…

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• ## Advantages And Disadvantages Of Atavism

DNA sequences and hox genes are at the very root of its physical being and is the most reliable evidence to trace a common ancestor. They compliment other types of evidences including vestigial organs (organs that were once functional in our evolutionary past) and comparative embryology how different types of organisms compare to one another during their fetal stages) DNA sequences can be used to estimate the time when two species branched off, filling in the gaps of some fossil records as well. However, some disadvantages include, might not detect some silent mutations in the protein sequence and Incorrect results due to cross…

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• ## The Importance Of Quantitative Genetics

Polygenic inheritance refers to the transmission of a quantitative trait between two or more genes in a species. These polygenic, quantitative traits are on specific parts on a chromosome called quantitative trait locus, or QTL. These QTLs are then identified through different types of genetic mapping, which is either a single gene on a chromosome, or two or more genes very close to one another on the chromosome. QTL mapping is done via the association of the determined phenotypes and molecular markers, such as microsatellites or RFLPs. This is helps identify where the traits are on the gene because markers’ sites are already known.…

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• ## Evolutionary Theory: Charles Darwin's Theory Of Evolution

YR 10 Science Evolutionary Theory Alicia Horsfield Evolution can be defined as a gradual process in which a species changes into a different and more complex form. This happens over several generations. Evolution also proves that all species are related through genetic variation. (yourgenome.org, n.e). Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was an English Naturalist, famous for creating the theory of ‘evolution’.…

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• ## Case Study: Descriptive Statistics

Use the same steps except select the Options button and change the Confidence level: to 99. MATH 221 FINAL…

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• ## Human Brain Theory Essay

By examining DNA sequences for similarities and differences within certain genes, the DNA data would be able to show if there are any genes that humans have that any other species do not have. Once these genes have been identified and their effects determined, the genes that code for proteins affecting brain development or growth could be isolated. The DNA comparisons would allow phylogenetic relationships to be established, which would help determine when traits emerged or disappeared. This would provide insight on when brain size and complexity started to increase. Once the time frame of when the traits for brain size and complexity arose has been established, what conditions and selective pressures caused them to increase could be determined by looking at the particular environments that existed in that time period.…

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• ## What Is Genetic Drift Essay

Genetic variation contributes to the diversity of genes in a population. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle is a method for geneticists to study genetic variation and evolution. It is a model that predicts the outcome and offspring of a non-evolving population. This model is then compared to an existing population and the differences between the non-evolving population and the existing population display evolution. An example is polyploidy.…

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