Analyse The Value Of Voltages In Generation, Transmission And Distribution?

Analyse the values of voltages in generation, transmission and distribution?

Task 4 (D1)
Electricity has greatly evolved from what it once was, to be fit for our modern day consumption and usage. Electrical engineering was first pioneered in the early 19th century, and great progress had been made by the time the 19th century came to a close. Most of the advancements were made by the likes of Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse; who all aided in making electricity what it is today.
In 1878 Thomas Edison started out by working on a long lasting incandescent lamp, that overcame the problems that some of the earlier designs by other inventors had. He realised that he would need a lamp that had high resistance and a low voltage,
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His invention was first used on the ‘Columbia’ a steamer belonging to the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company, after Henry Villard, the president of the company saw Edison’s invention in action.
Thomas Edison later developed and patented a system for generating and distributing electricity, which would be capable of supplying houses, factories and streets with power. When he founded the Edison Illuminating Company on December 17th 1880. His company established themselves on Pearl Street Station in New York City, It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station 's electrical power distribution system, which provided 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan.
However Edison became stuck, as in order for his system to work he would need to have power stations scattered every mile to make it economical. Which wouldn’t work, the reason being that to bury the cables would be very expensive and the cables would also lose current over long distances, because of the resistance inside
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Where it is then stepped down at the substation to 132kV, A step down transformer is a piece of electrical machinery, which takes high voltages as they come through the input and make them lower as it passes through the output. For this conversion process to take place, the transformer needs an altering current voltage; this is as the coil relies on a magnetic field to generate a voltage.
Step down transformers have a primary and a secondary coil, which are tightly wound together so that there is no current leakage. The secondary coil will have less turns in its coil, this is because the voltage passing through the secondary coil, needs to be lower in order for the transformer to step it down. The coils in a step down transformer are normally wrapped around a soft iron core, which helps to lower the current flowing through the coils before it reaches the output.
From the substation electricity is then distributed to both the primary customer, and the industrial customer at 33kV in a delta-delta connection. These are the large manufacturers and places that are heavily populated, such as train stations or airports. The secondary customer receives 11kV, through a delta-star connection and lastly the residential customer receives

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