Affirmative Action Policies And The Civil Rights Act Of 1964 Essay

1452 Words Feb 4th, 2016 null Page
Affirmative action policies are policies in which an institution or organization actively engages in multiple efforts to improve opportunities for historically marginalized and excluded groups in America (Pojman, 1998). These policies focus on both employment and education. In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission and recruitment policies that provide equal and equitable access to education for those groups that have been excluded or underrepresented, such as women and racial/ethnic minorities (Coate & Laury, 1993). The controversy surrounding whether or not it is constitutional to implement affirmative action programs, as whether or not these policies help racial relations has been a topic of great debate.
Affirmative action was created so that the initial focus solely on improving opportunities for African Americans in employment and education (Coate & Laury, 1993). The Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954 outlawed educational segregation, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 set out to improve the quality of life for African Americans in America during that time. In 1965, however, the percentages of minorities in environments of higher education were significantly lower than that of the majority members of society. In response to this, President Lyndon Johnson, signed an Executive Order in 1965 that required all government contractors to use affirmative action policies in their hiring to increase the…

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