Advantages And Disadvantage Of Electron Spectroscopy

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An electron vacancy is created and is further filled by an electron from the higher shell and thus an X-ray is emitted to balance the difference in energy between the two electrons. The detector placed on the energy dispersive spectroscope apparatus measures the number of emitted X-rays and their energies. Energy of the X-ray is characteristics of the element from which X-ray is emitted. A spectrum of the relative counts of the detected X-rays is obtained and evaluated for quantitative determinations of the elements present in the sample volume. In the present study, the surface morphology of the nanomaterials was obtained from SEM images using JEOL Model JSM 5600LV.
2.3. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Transmission electron microscopy
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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) It is one of the classical techniques used routinely to derive information regarding the various bond types, the presence of different functional groups and interaction among them. FTIR spectroscopy provides opportunities to identify the unknown materials. In infrared spectroscopy the infrared radiations are passed through a sample. A portion of the radiation is absorbed by the sample and the remaining is passed through it. The resultant spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmissions, creating a molecular finger print of the sample (Shurvell 2002). The advantages of infrared spectroscopy over other spectroscopic techniques include wide applicability, no destructiveness, measurement under ambient atmosphere and the capability of providing detailed structural information. Infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR) has additional merits such as: higher sensitivity, higher precision, quickness of measurement and extensive data processing capability [Fately et al., 1971; Halberstadt and Henish, 1968; Kaneko et. al., 1984].

In the present study the infrared spectroscopic studies of the sample were done using Perkin-Elmer FTIR Spectrophotometer in the wave number range 400 cm-1 to 4000cm-1 by KBr disc
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Absorption measurements can be at a single wavelength or over an extended spectral range. Ultraviolet and visible light are energetic enough to promote outer electrons to higher energy levels, and UV-Vis spectroscopy is usually applied to molecules or inorganic complexes in solution. The UV-Vis spectra have broad features that are of limited use for sample identification but are very useful for quantitative measurements. The concentration of an analyte in solution can be determined by measuring the absorbance at some wavelength and applying the Beer-Lambert Law.
Since the UV-Vis range spans the range of human visual acuity of approximately 400 - 750 nm, UV-Vis spectroscopy is useful to characterize the absorption, transmission, and reflectivity of a variety of technologically important materials, such as pigments, coatings, windows, and filters. This more qualitative application usually requires recording at least a portion of the UV-Vis spectrum for characterization of the optical or electronic properties of

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