Achilles Tendon Essay

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The Achilles tendon is one of the largest and strongest tendons in the body, stretching from the bones of the heel to calf muscles. It allows patients to extend their foot and point their toes to the floor known as plantar flexion. Despite its strength, the Achilles tendon is vulnerable to injury. Due to its limited blood supply and the high tensions placed on it, an Achilles rupture is a common injury. When the Achilles tendon is torn or ruptured it can either be partial, or a complete tear. In a partial tear, the tendon is torn but still joined to the calf muscle. Whereas with a complete tear, the tendon is torn so that the connection between the calf muscles and the anklebone is lost. Of the two injuries a complete tear is more common. …show more content…
The Achilles tendon needs time to heal properly. In the inflammatory phase, the bleeding caused by the rupture leads to hematoma and activation of platelets and neutrophils. This will lead to the release of growth factors, chemotactic factors and vasoactive factors. The vascular permeability is increased, inflammatory cells are recruited and a tendon granuloma is produced (Barfod). In the proliferative phase, angiogenesis allows for vascular and neuronal in- close space growth in the granuloma. The fibroblasts produce collagen, mainly type 3, and the mechanical strength of the granuloma gradually increases. After ten to fourteen days, a tendon callus has been produced, which glues the torn tendon ends together. Production of collagen type 1 gradually takes over and the callus reaches its largest size. The large transverse area of the tendon compensates for its weak composition (Barfod). Lastly, the remodeling phase, which is the time period until the Achilles is back to where it was after the rupture. This could take between three months to even a

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