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104 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name a popular Alsace dish.
Choucroute Garnis

(Sauerkraut with Pork and Sausages)
What foods emphasize Tannins?
Tannins are emphasized by foods that are SALTY, SPICY and COLD.
What are the five main red varietals from Bordeaux?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Franc
Merlot
Malbec
Petit Verdot
What are the grape varietals that are called the Holy Trinity?
Grenache
Shiraz
Mourvédre
Where do the Holy Trinity of grape varietals grow best?
Rhone in Southern France
What is another name for Chaptalization?
Must Enrichment
What is another name for Riddling?
Remuage
What do you call a grain that has had its starch converted to fermentable sugar?
Malt
What is the process of macerating grain in order to incite germination?
Steeping
In beer production, what enzyme helps convert starch into sugar?
Diatase
This word means to bud or put forth shoots. During beer production, diatase becomes active during this stage.
Germination
These are dry grains that have been milled. These are similar to dry cereal.
Grist
This is the sugary liquid that is made from re-hydrated grist. This is fermented to make beer.
Wort
What is the large container used for boiling wort.
Copper
This is the process of adding HOPS at the end of fermentation process.
Dry Hopping
What do you call distilled Beer?
Whiskey
What are the three main varietals that Burgundy is known for?
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Gamay
What is the law that was established in Germany to restrict the ingredients used in Beer production. What year was this enacted.
"Bavarian Purity Law" of 1516
Reinheitsgebot is another name for what?
"Bavarian Purity Law" of 1516
What do you call any other ingredient that is used in Beer production that is not one of the three main ingredients defined by the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516?
Anything else that is added is called an ADJUNCT.
Explain how the quality of WATER plays an important role in Beer Production.
The mineral content of water is important in Beer Production.

Hard water is good for certain styles.

Soft water is better for other styles.

Brewers do emphasize the uniqueness of their water source.
What is Italy's version of fondue?
FONDUTA
What are the main grape varietals grown in Hungary?
Furmint
Harslevelu
What three elements are important for good quality soil?
DRAINAGE
- most important

RETENTION and REFLECTION OF HEAT
-- Retention - Dark Soil (Slate)
-- Reflection - White Pudding Stones

RICHNESS
-- Minerality is preferred
-- Organic soil overproduces leaves which is not good
What is the main reason for pruning grape vines?
To prepare the vine for new growth.
The Appellation System was introduced in France to control wine fraud. Name the areas that it is designed to control.
Areas of production (boundaries)

Grape Varietals

Yield

Viticultural Pratices

Vinification

Minimum and Maximum natural alcohol levels
Name the six main wine districts in Burgundy.

Describe the basic profile of the wine that comes from each district.
Chablis : Dry Wine, Chardonnay
Cote D'Or - Cote de Nuits: Age-worthy Red (Pinot Noir)
Cote D'Or - Cote de Beaune: White (Chardonnay)
Cote Challonaise: Red and White
Maconnais:Mainly white, some red (Pinot Noir and Gamay)
Beaujolais: Light and fruity made from Gamay

NOTE: MAF can be used on Chardonnay
Name three of the most important grape varietals in the Loire Valley.
Sauvignon Blanc (White)
- SANCERRE area
- POUILLY FUME area

Chenin Blanc (White)
- VOUVRAY

Melon de Bourgogne (White)
- MUSCADET
Name the four quality levels of Italian wines.
Vino di Tavola (entry level)

IGT - Indicazione Geografica Tipica

DOC - Denominazione d’Origine Controllata

DOCG - Denominazione d’Origine Controllata e Garantita
Name two sparkling wines that are produced in Italy.
Proseco
(this is a varietal)

Asti
Name the three varietals that are used in VALPOLICELLA.
Corvina
Rondinella
Molinara
Which varietals in Alsace may be used in Grand Cru?
Riesling
Gewurtztraminer
Pinot Gris
Muscat (vinified dry)
Name the four most important conditions that must be monitored in a wine cellar.
Humidity - constant at 75%

Temperature - constant at range of 50 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit (10 to 13 degreese Celsius)

Free from Vibration

No direct sunlight
Outline the varietal, region and style of wines for Pouilly Fume.
Varietal - Sauvignon Blanc

Region - Loire Valley, France

Styles:
Citrus
Mineral
High Acid
Stainless Steel (Not OAK)
Outline the varietal, region and style of wines for Fume Blanc.
Varietal - Sauvignon Blanc

Region - Anywhere (This is a marketing term that originated in California)

Styles:
Lean
Citrus
Touch of OAK
Outline the varietal, region and style of wines for Pouilly Fuse.
Varietal - Chardonnay

Region - Maconnais, France

Styles:
Apple
Lemon
Touch of OAK
Slightly Buttery (if MAF)
What is the adverse impact in a wine cellar of HUMIDTY that is not ideal.
If too dry, CORK will shrink and wine will:
Oxidize
Evaporate
Bacterial Infection

If too humid:
Label will be ruined
What is the adverse impact in a wine cellar of TEMPERATURE that is not ideal.
If too hot, the wine will:
Maderize
Cork will shrink
-- Oxidize
-- Evaporate
-- Bacterial Growth

If temperature too low there is not much harm to wine except if wine freezes:
-- cork will expand and will be forced out
What is the adverse impact in a wine cellar if VIBRATION occurs.
Can be caused by "fridge" motor
Sediments are disturbed
Premature ageing
What is the adverse impact in a wine cellar if DIRECT SUNLIGHT occurs.
Breakdown in wine chemical
Heat will maderize wine
Premature aging
Cork shrinkage
Within the entire winemaking process, when does Malolactic Fermentation take place?
Malolactic Fermentation is done post primary fermentation

Happens between fermentation and aging
What is Malolactic Fermentation?
MAF is a decision made by the winemaker.

This is encouraged by warmer temperature and high humidity locations.

MAF is sometimes called SECONDARY FERMENTATION.

Bacteria converts malic acid into lactic acid and carbon dioxide in a special barrel for MLF. No alcohol is produced.

MAF makes wines become softer and smoother and less acidic.

MAF produces diacetyl which resembles the smell of heated butter and adds complexity to wine. Makes it buttery and creamy like Milk (due to lactic acid).

MAF is done for most high-quality red wines and some white wines, including White Burgundies and California Chardonnays.

On the downside, MAF diminishes fruitiness and sometimes off-odors can result.
What makes Tuscan wines "SUPER"?
This is just a MARKETING term.

"Super Tuscan” not on label

Has IGT on the label.

Sangiovese + Cabernet Sauvignon

Fortified with Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah

Ineligible for Italy's top classifications
- Produced using unauthorized varieties
- Unapproved composition
- Unsanctioned methods (like using small, nontraditional oak barrels for aging)
Describe the overall climate of Burgundy and Bordeaux.
Burgundy:
Continental with cold winter and warm summer.


Bordeaux:

Maritime - Oceanic and temperate with short, mild winters, quite hot summers, long autumns and a high degree of humidity generated by the Atlantic Ocean.
What is "Rain Shadow Effect"?
The "Rain Shadow Effect" occurs when there is a montain range that protects the lee side of the mountain from rain and wind. The protected area is drier and more arid.

The lee side is the one that is sheltered from the rain and wind.

"Rain Shadow Effect" occurs in:

Alsace (Vosges mountain)

Washington (Cascade mountain)

Argentina (Andes mountain)
Gets water from spring run-off
What varietal is South Africa known for?
PINOTAGE - This is a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsaut
How is Chenin Blanc called in South Africa?
STEEN
What are the most important NEW WORLD countries?
Australia
New Zealand
Argentina
Chile
South Africa
Canada
USA - California
USA - Washington
USA - Oregon
Provide historical background on ALSACE, France.
ALSACE, France

Referred to as "Alsacienne"
Blends French and German practices
Border region
Predominantly WHITE WINE
Varietal labeling

World War II
Improved quality of wine
Replanted quality wine producing varietals (vitis vinifera)
Bad quality wines were pulled out
Great wine growing region due to its climate
New Appellation laws - from 60's and 80's)
Describe the location of ALSACE, France
Location: ALSACE, France

Borders Germany
Northeast France
Banks of the Rhine River
Describe CLIMATE in ALSACE, France.
Climate - ALSACE, France

Cold continental - extreme weather swings with cold winter and warm summer

"Rain Shadow Effect" from Vosges Mountain range. Winery is close to mountain range and is shielded from excessive rainfall. Viticulture is dry which causes concentrated grapes.

"Indian Summer" - Long autumn
Describe SOIL in ALSACE, France.
Soil: ALSACE, France

Varied
Hillside - minerally rich and organically poor
Valley - organically rich and deep
List ALSACE varietals.
Preferred varietals (Noble varietals) used for GRAND CRU:
Riesling
Gewurtztraminer
Pinot Gris
Muscat (generally vinified dry)

Other varietals:
Pinot Blanc
Sylvaner
Pinot Noir (red wine grown in cold climate)
Auxerrois
Describe ALSACE viticulture.
Viticulture - ALSACE

High maximum yields compared to other AC's due to good soil and climate
Long harvest (several weeks)
Grapes are heavy at harvest time
Describe ALSACE viniculture.
MAF is generally discouraged
Gewurztraminer (no acidity)
Must be in flute-shaped bottles (This is a requirement)
Oak aging is rare due to varietals used
Fermentation - Stainless Steel tanks
Old Oak barrels - not really Oak since interior is lined with tartrate which does not give Oak flavor
Describe FOOD in ALSACE
Food - Alsace, France

Hardy
Dramatically influenced
Sausage
Cabbage
Fresh water fish
Quiche Lorraine (bacon, green onion)
Choucrote Garnis (sauerkraut with cabbage)
Munster cheese
Fruit Tarts
Name the important AOC's in ALSACE, France.
Alsace AOC:
Covers entire area
Greater yield
Often labeled by varietal (must be 100% if in Alsace)
Exceptions as these refer to a blend of grapes:
* Edelzwicker
* Gentil

Alsace Grand Cru AOC: (started 1983)
Lower yield
Sticter regulations
Controversial
Specific vineyard sites - a total of 50 vineyard sites
* 25 - 1983
* 25 - 1993

Alsace Vendange Tardive AOC:
Means late harvest
Mandates when grapes should be picked
Late harvest wines
Dry, Off-Dry, Sweet
May be BA infected
Concentrated
Not possible to make every year

Alsace Selection Des Grains Nobles AOC:
BA affected
Sweet wines with high concentration
What are the wine sweetness levels?
Wine sweetness levels are:

- DRY
- OFF-DRY
- MED-DRY
- MED-SWEET
- OFF-SWEET
- SWEET
What does Autolytic taste mean?
Autolytic is taste that is YEASTY
In wine tasting, how is the body of the wine described?
Body of wine:

LIGHT/THIN BODY
- like 1% - 2% milk
- like Riesling

MEDIUM BODY
- like Regular milk
- Buttery Chardonnay

FULL BODY
- like milk cream
- Port / Sauternes
What are the wine process BASICS?
Wine process BASICS:
1. Crush grapes
2. Ferment grapes with yeast
3. Yeast takes sugar in grapes + oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Alcohol

Note:
Carbon Dioxide - bubbles away
Alcohol makes grape juice into wine

4. Aged
5. Bottled
What is the difference between Sauternes and Sauterne
Sauternes - a region in France

Sauterne - refers to wine juice
What is another name for the grape varietal TEMPRANILLO?
TINTA RORIZ is another name for TEMPRANILLO.

Note: This is used in PORT PRODUCTION
What other names if GRENACHE known as?
Grenache - All else
Garnacha - Spain
Cannonau - Italy (Sardinia)
What regions make up the SHERRY TRIANGLE?
1. Jerez de la Frontera

2. Puerto de Santa Maria

3. Sanlucar de Barrameda
What is the latin name for FLOR yeast?
Flor latin name is

SACCHAROMYCES BETTICUS

Note: used in SHERRY production
What vessel is used to crush grapes by foot for PORT production.
LAGARES - cement troughs where grapes are stepped on by foot.
What is MACERATION?
MACERATION is the period of time in which grape skins remain in contact with the juice.
What is CARBONIC MACERATION?
CARBONIC MACERATION is sometimes called "whole grape fermentation"

- used for Beaujolais Nouveau
- makes tannic heavy wine to a wine that is young, fruity and ready to drink.
- whole grapes with a layer of Carbon Dioxide so yeast does not start easily.
- INSIDE of grape ferments within skin.
- produces Ethanol and other good aromas.
- wine not capable of aging
- wine becomes less tannic, less acidic
- wine becomes more light and fruity
What is CUVAISON?
CUVAISON is the maceration of the grape skins during fermentation of red wine in order to transfer color, aroma and tannin to wine.
What is a PIPE?
A PIPE is a PORT storage vessel.

Pipe = 600 liters
What is another name for the Solera System that is used in Sherry production
Solera System is also known as "Fractional Blending"
What does "RUNNING THE SCALE" mean in Sherry ageing process?
"Running the scale" in the Sherry ageing process done in a Solera System is the movement of the wine from the top barrel in small amounts down to the barrel layers until it ends in the bottom barrel.
What is a CRIADERA?
CRIADERA is a layer of barrels in a Solera System

1st criadera tops up the oldest and lowest layer which is called the Solera

2nd criadera tops up the 1st criadera

The top most criadera is topped up with new wine
What does ESTUFAGEN mean?
ESTUFAGEN is a process used in the Madeira region where the wine is subjected to high temperatures for some months in buildings called ESTUFAS.

This is done in the Madeira method of wine fortification.
What does DISGORGEMENT mean during sparking wine production?
DISGORGEMENT is the removal of the "plug of yeast" froma sparkling wine bottle.
What is "Liqueur d'Expedition"?
"Liqueur d'Expedition" is the shipping dosage which is sugar plus some of the same wine reserved for this purpose for final bottling to increase sweetness.

A shipping dosage (liqueur d'expédition)-usually sugar plus some of the same wine that's been reserved for this purpose-is added to a wine immediately prior to final bottling to increase its level of sweetness. The percentage of sugar in the shipping dosage determines the degree of sweetness in the final wine.
What is "Liqueur de Tirage"
"Liqueur de Tirage" is the bottling dosage. This is added with yeast to cause second fermentation in sparkling wines.

A bottling dosage (liqueur de tirage) plus yeast is added to a CUVÉE (a blend of still wines) in order to cause a SECONDARY FERMENTATION in the bottle.
What is CORDON?
CORDON is the rim of bubbles in sparkling wine.
Explain the RIDDLING process that is done in the production of Sparking Wines.
RIDDLING is also called REMUAGE.

RIDDLING is the positioning of sparkling wine bottles upside down at 45 degree angle in riddling racks called "Pupitres".

Bottles are shaken and slightly turned every 3 to 4 days increasing the angle. In 6 to 8 weeks, the bottles are positioned straight downward with sediment collected at the neck of the bottle.
What do you call a trained workman that does riddling of sparkling wine?
REMUER
What ARE PUPITRES?
PUPITRES are riddling racks used in sparkling wine production.
Name the different names used for RIDDLING machines that are used in sparkling wine production?
The sparkling wine industry in Catalonia, Spain developed machinery which would riddle their bottles of cava automatically.

Each computer-controlled girasol (which is also the Spanish word for “sunflower” is derived from the word girar meaning “to turn, rotate”) is a large metal box or crate which can hold 42 dozen bottles from horizontal to vertical, accompanied by the requisite shake, 24 hours a day to produce a bottle of wine ready for disgorging in less than a week

SPAIN - called GIRASOLS

FRANCE - called GYROPALLETS

USA - called VLM's (Very Large Machines)
What is SPARKLING WINE?
SPARKLING WINE is wine containing bubbles that consist of Carbon Dioxide suspended in the liquid.
What is DOSAGE?
DOSAGE is added to Sparkling Wine after disgorgement of the yeast plug.

This is a secret house recipe which is a blend of sparkling wine, sugar and sometimes even brandy.
What is FORTIFIED WINE?
Fortified is the addition of neutral grape spirit or brandy
- adds alcoholic strength
- provides stability (preserves wine and can age longer)

Fortified wines are shipped mostly to Britain
At what level of Alcohol will Yeast start to die?
Yeast dies at approcimately 15% alcohol by volume
What are the three FORTIFIED WINE Methods?
Fortified Wine Methods:

1. Port Method
---- spirit added DURING fermentation which stops the fermentation process
---- spirit could be as high as 77% ABV (brandy may be used)
---- sweet
---- True Port is from OPORTO, PORTUGAL

2. Sherry Method
---- spirit added AFTER fermentation
---- DRY or SWEET (if sweet style, go back and add sweetness)
---- True Sherry is from JEREZ, SPAIN

3. Madeira Method
---- either Port Method (sweet)
---- or Sherry Method (dry)
Upper Duoro in Oporto, Portugal - HISTORY
Upper Duoro in Oporto, Portugal - HISTORY

- Methuen Treaty 1703 gave tax breaks between Portugal and Britain
- 90% of all Port production is exported
Upper Duoro in Oporto, Portugal - LOCATION, CLIMATE, SOIL, VARIETALS
Upper Duoro in Oporto, Portugal (known as PORT COUNTRY)

LOCATION:
Northwest Portugal

CLIMATE:
- extreme continental with temperature variations
----- extreme heat in summer
----- extreme cold in winter
- concerns: erosion

SOIL:
- schist
- granite

VARIETALS:
- 48 varietals are authorized
- there are now over 50 authorized
1. Tinto Roriz (Tempranillo) low yielding
2. Touriga Nacional (the best)
3. Touriga Francesca
4. Tinta Cao
5. Tinta Barroca
Upper Duoro - Oporto, Portugal

Viticulture
Vinification
Upper Duoro - Oporto, Portugal

Viticulture:
- steep slopes
- gives maximum exposure to sun
- PORT VINEYARD CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
---- determines amount of wine that can be produced in vineyard based on points system by vineyard that covers:
1. altitude
2. soil
3. location
4. slope
5. varietal

Vinification:
- speedy extraction of color and tannin in grapes to prevent oxidization
- done using REMONTAGE (pumping over)
- many grapes can be used but Touriga Nacional is dominant
Briefly describe the PORT PRODUCTON process?
Port Production process:

1. Speedy extraction of color and tannin in grapes by REMONTAGE (pumping over).

2. Fermentation and Fortification occurs.

3. Oak aging in cask.
What are the THREE main styles of PORT?
Main styles of PORT are:

1. Wood Aged
- pre-aged in wood cask
- filtered
- no decanting needed
- ready for consumption

2. Bottle Aged
- young port that requires 15 to 25 years of ageing in bottle
- less woog ageing
- generally unfiltered
- needs decanting due to sediments
- extensive ageing by consumer prior to service
- aged in bottle for 15 to 25 years from vintage date
- released 3 years from vintage year

3. White Port
- white grapes
- dry or sweet
- must be decanted
- LBV traditional
- specific year
List and describe the four type of wood-aged Ports.
Four types of WOOD-AGED PORTS:

1. Ruby Port
- young
- non vintage-dated
- wood matured
- sold at 3 to 6 years
- dark, rich, grapey

2. Tawny Port
- tawny color from extensive wood ageing
- has 10, 20, 30 or 40 years on label
- this is not the actual age but only reflects style and/or character of listed year
- 10 to 40 years - the "older" the more woody, less fruit

3. LBV (Late Bottled Vintage)
- made every year
- Ruby style port
- Filtered and ready for use
- exceptiom (must be decanted):
----- LBV Traditional
----- LBV Unfiltered
- from a specific but necessarily a declared year
- sold at 4 to 6 years

4. Colheita Port
- vintage dated Tawny Port
- all grapes come from that year
- release minimum of 6 years from vintage year
- sold minimum of 9 years
List the types of BOTTLE-AGED PORTS?
Types of BOTTLE-AGED PORTS:

1. VINTAGE PORT
- highest quality port
- 5% of total production
- declared year (best vintage)
- shippers determine a "declared year"
- only since 1870
- slow maturing
- requires extensive ageing form 20 to 25 years

2. QUINTA VINTAGE PORT
- "vintage from single estate" or "Quinta" which is like 2nd growth
- very good quality port
- not necessarily declared vintage
- often made in "off" years which is a better value
- 10 to 15 years of ageing
- often ready to consume earlier than vintage port

3. CRUSTED or CRUSTING PORT
- blend of vintages or which the oldest is 4 years
- unfiltered
What are the BEST RECENT PORT VINTAGES?
BEST recent PORT VINTAGES
1945
1970
1977
1985
1994

Other GOOD VINTAGES
1963
1966
1983
1991
1995
1997
2000
What are the ingredients allowed in Beer production by the "Bavarian Purity Law" in 1516
1. Barley
2. Hops
3. Water

Note: Yeast is an assumed ingredient in Beer production
What is the main red varietal grown in the Loire Valley?
Cabernet Franc
What are Italy's most inportant regions?
Italy - Most important regions

1. Piedmont
2. Trentino and Alto Adige
3. Veneto
4. Friuli-Venezia Giulia
5. Tuscany
6. Umbria
7. Emilia-Romagna
8. Campania
9. Apulia
10. Sicily
11. Sardinia
What wines is Piedmont noted for?
Barolo - Nebbiolo
Barbaresco - Nebbiolo
Moscato - frizzante sparkling
Asti - spumante sparling
What wine is Trentino and Alto Adige in Italy noted for:
It is the home of Pinot Grigio
What region if the Valpolicella DOC in Italy?
Veneto
What is the process used in some VALPOLICELLA wines that, after fermentation, adds lees from a previous batch of Recioto to add color, tannins and complex flavors.
Ripasso process
What is Passito ?
An Italian term used both for a method of making sweet wines and for the sweet wines made this way. Passito wines begin by laying freshly picked grapes on mats (or hanging them in bunches) so that they can partially dry. This process eliminates much of the grape's water and concentrates its sugar and flavor components. This is in Valpolicella