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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Most accidental poisonings in children from 1 to 3 years of age occur by means of:
Ingestion
Which of the following organs is most likely to show the effects of poisoning first?
Heart
The dosage of activated charcoal in a child is:
15 to 30 g
The mnemonic device CHAMP helps you remember:
Which hydrocarbons may benefit from gastric lavage
A chemical that may be produced when nylon and polyurethane burn and is of particular concern in any fire environment is:
Cyanide
If the stinger is left in the wound after a sting by a honey bee, you should:
Scrape the stinger from the wound
Organophosphates affect primarily which neurotransmitter
Acetylcholine
The mnemonic device SLUDGE helps you to remember the:
Signs of organophosphate poisoning
Which of the following is an early sign of toxicity in reaction to a tricyclic antidepressant?
Blurred Vision
The most commonly ingested NSAID in overdose is:
Ibuprofen
An often fatal form of food poisoning caused by the bacillus
botulism
An acute and sometimes fatal psychotic reaction caused by cessation of excessive intake of alcohol over a long period of time: also known as DT's
Delirium tremens
the injection of snake, arachnid or insect venom into the body
envenomation
Irrigation of the stomach with sterile water or normal saline
gastric lavage
A form of amnesia often seen in alcoholics, characterized by a loss of short-term memory and an inability to learn new skills
Korsakoff's psychosis
An acute, recurrent inflammatory infection transmitted by a tick
Lyme disease
A capsule containing threadlike, venomous stinging cells found in some coelenterates.
nematocyst
Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes
nystagmus
any substance that produces harmful physiological or psychological effects
poison
A serious tick-borne infectious disease, characterized by chills, fever, severe headache, mental confusion, and rash
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
A rare, progressive, reversible disorder caused by several species of ticks that release a neurotoxin that causes weakness, incoordinatin, and paralysis
tick paralysis
A potentially serious mosquito-borne illness that affects the central nervous system
West Nile virus
The toxic effects of ingested poisons may be
immediate or delayed
When poisons are ingested the main goal is to identify effects on the three vital organs
The respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, and the CNS
The goal of managing serious poisonings by ingestion is to prevent the toxic substance from
reaching the small intestine. to limit its absorption
strong acids and alkalis may cause burns
to the mouth, paharynx, esophagus, and sometimes the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
The most important physical characteristic in the potential toxicity of an ingested hydrocarbon
is its viscosity
the lower the viscosity
the higher the risk of aspiration
Hydrocarrbon ingestin may involve the paqtients
respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems.
A form of amnesia often seen in alcoholics, characterized by a loss of short-term memory and an inability to learn new skills
Korsakoff's psychosis
An acute, recurrent inflammatory infection transmitted by a tick
Lyme disease
A capsule containing threadlike, venomous stinging cells found in some coelenterates.
nematocyst
Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes
nystagmus
any substance that produces harmful physiological or psychological effects
poison
A serious tick-borne infectious disease, characterized by chills, fever, severe headache, mental confusion, and rash
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
A rare, progressive, reversible disorder caused by several species of ticks that release a neurotoxin that causes weakness, incoordinatin, and paralysis
tick paralysis
A potentially serious mosquito-borne illness that affects the central nervous system
West Nile virus
The toxic effects of ingested poisons may be
immediate or delayed
When poisons are ingested the main goal is to identify effects on the three vital organs
The respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, and the CNS
The goal of managing serious poisonings by ingestion is to prevent the toxic substance from
reaching the small intestine. to limit its absorption
strong acids and alkalis may cause burns
to the mouth, paharynx, esophagus, and sometimes the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
The most important physical characteristic in the potential toxicity of an ingested hydrocarbon
is its viscosity
the lower the viscosity
the higher the risk of aspiration
Hydrocarrbon ingestin may involve the paqtients
respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems.
Methanol is a poisonous alcohol found
in a number of products.
Methanol itself is no more toxic than ethanol yet its metabolits
formaldehyde and formicacid are toxic
Ingestion of Methanol can affect the
CNS, the gastrointestinal tract, and the eyes.
Ethylen glycol toxicity is caused by the buildup of metabolites,
especially glycolic and oxalic acids after metabolism.
Ethylene glycol toxicity occurs mainly in the
liver and kidneys.
Ethylene glycol toxicity may affect the
CNS, Cardiopulmonary and renal systems and may result in hypocalcemia
The majority of isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) is metabolized to
acetone after ingestion
Isoprpanol poisoning affects several body systems
including the central nervous,gastrointestinal and renal systems
Ingested iron may produce
lethal gastrointestinal hemorrhoge, bloody vomitus, painless bloody diarrhea, and dark stools
Food poisoning is a term used for
any illness of sudden onset suspected of being caused by food eaten within the previous 48 hours.
Food poisoning can be classified As
bacterium or virus (Infectious)Or (Noninfectious) toxins and pollutants
The toxic effects of major poisonous plants are categorized by
the chemical and physical properties of the plant.
The concentratin of a chemical in the air helps to
determine the severity of an inhalation injury.
Highly reactive chemicals cause more severe and rapid injury
than less reactive chemicals.
Properties that determine chemical reactivity are
chemical pH, direct-acting potential, indirect-acting potential ,and allergic potential of chemicals
Regardles of the route of entry cyanide
is a rapidy acting poison
Ammonia is a toxic irritant that causes
pulmonary complications after inhalation. Bronchospasm and pulmonary edema may develop
Hydrocarbon inhalation may cause aspiration pneumonitis it also has the potential for
systemic effects such as CNS depression, liver, kidney, or bone marrow toxicity
Asphyxiants cause toxicity by
lowering ambient oxygen concentratin
irritants or corrosives cause cellular destructin and inflammatin as they come in contact with
moisture in the respiratory tract
The general principles of managing inhaled poisons are
the same as for any other hazardous materials incidents
Hymenoptera and Arachnida cause the
the highest incidence of need for emergency care
The two main families of venomous snakes indigenous to the united states are
pit vipers and coral snakes
Pit viper venom can
produce toxic effects on blood and other tissues
The venom of the coral snake is
mainly neurotoxic
Signs and syptoms of coral snake bites are
slurred speech, dilated pupils, and dysphagia to flaccid paralysis and death
Marine animal most likely to be involved in human poisonings
coelenterates, echinoderms, stingrays.
SLUDGE stand for
Salivation, lacrimation, urinatin, defecation, gastointestinal upset and emesis
Organophosphates and carbamates inhibit the effects of
acetylcholinesterase
to recognize organophosphates and carbamates poisoning look for
SLEDGE
General principles for managing drup abuse include
scene safety, airway, breathing, circulation, history, substance id, focused exam, initiation of IV, admin, of antidote , prevention, transport
Narcotics are
CNS depressants.
A pure narcotic antagonist effective for virtually all narcotic and narcotic like substances
Naloxone (Narcan) Dose: 0.4-2mg IM/IV/SQ repeated in 5Min max of 10mg
sedative-hypnotic agents
benzodiazepines and barbiturates
Signs of sedative overdose
are chiefly CNS and cardiovascular
To reverse the effect of sedative overdose use
Flumazenil(Romazicon ) Adult dose: 0.2(2ml) IV ofer 15 sec. an additional dose of 0.3(3ml) may ge given in 30 sec. followed by 0.5(5ml) at 1 min intervals (max dose 3mg)
Commonly used stimulant drugs
are those of the amphetamine family
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a
dissociative analgesic with sympathomimetic and CNS stimulant and depressant effects
Pt with who have taken Low doses of PCP resemble
drunkenness (and rage)and is a psychiatric emergency that mimics schizophrenia
Hallucinogens are
substances that cause distortions of perceptions.
Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity causes
peripheral atropine-like anticholinergic effects and depressant effects on myocardial function (prolong QRS)
Lithium is
a mood stabilizing drug
Lithium overdose causes
CNS effects, blurred vision, confusion and seizure , coma
Acetaminophen overdose may cause
liver damage
General principles for managing drup abuse include
scene safety, airway, breathing, circulation, history, substance id, focused exam, initiatin ot IV, admin, of antidote , prevention, transport
Narcotics are
CNS depressants.
A pure narcotic antagonist effective for virtually all narcotic and narcotic like substances
Naloxone (Narcan) Dose: 0.4-2mg IM/IV/SQ repeated in 5Min max of 10mg
sedative-hypnotic agents
benzodiazepines and barbiturates
Signs of sedative overdose
are chiefly CNS and cardiovascular
To reverse the effect of sedative overdose use
Flumazenil(Romazicon ) Adult dose: 0.2(2ml) IV ofer 15 sec. an additional dose of 0.3(3ml) may ge given in 30 sec. followed by 0.5(5ml) at 1 min intervals (max dose 3mg)
Commonly used stimulant drugs
are those of the amphetamine family
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a
dissociative analgesic with sympathomimetic and CNS stimulant and depressant effects
Pt with who have taken Low doses of PCP resemble
drunkenness (and rage)and is a psychiatric emergency that mimics schizophrenia
Hallucinogens are
substances that cause distortions of perceptions.
Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity causes
peripheral atropine-like anticholinergic effects and depressant effects on myocardial function (prolong QRS)
Lithium is
a mood stabilizing drug
Lithium overdose causes
CNS effects, blurred vision, confusion and seizure , coma
Acetaminophen overdose may cause
liver damage