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20 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Independent Variable

Something that causes change


Dependent Variable

Something that changes because of the Independent Variable


Population

The complete collection of all elements being studied


Sample

Subcollection of members selected from a population


Parameter

Numerical measurements describing some characteristics of the population


Statistic

Numerical measurement describing some characteristic of the sample


Nominal Level of Measurement

Data that consist of names, label, categories only.
Ex: Yes, no, undecided..... colors 

Interval Level of Measurement

Names, labels, but difference between two categories is meaningful. No natural starting point
Ex: Temperature, Years 

Ratio Level of Measurement

Meaningful difference, natural zero starting point
Ex: weights, prices 

Ordinal Level of Measurement

Can be arranged in some order, but differences are meaningless (cannot be subtracted from each other0
EX: Grades, ranks 

Lower class limits

Smallest numbers that can belong to each class (sample results)


Upper class limits

Largest numbers that can belong to each class (sample results)


Class Boundaries

Size of the gap between Upper Limit of one class and Lower Limit of the next. Add 1/2 that to each Upper Limit to find Upper Class Boundaries. Subtract 1/2 that to find Lower Class Boundaries.


Class Midpoints

Add Lower class limits to Upper class limits and divide by 2.


Class width

Difference between 2 consecutive Lower class limits or Upper class limits.


Median

Data values arranged in order, then find middle. If even number of values, median is the mean of both middle numbers


Mode

Most often repeated


Midrange

Add highest to lowest and divide by 2.


Range

Distance between highest and lowest number


Standard Deviation

Measure of variation of values about the mean
