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### 12 Cards in this Set

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 Placebo Effects The fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment. Random Assignment The constituion of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equeal chance of being assigned to any group or condition. Replication The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated. Sampling Bias A problem that occurs when a sample isn't representative of the population from which it is drawn. Statistical Significance The condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low. Variability The extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean. Frequency Distribution An orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or group of scores. Frequency Polygon A line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution. Histogram A bar graph that presents data from a frequency distribution. Negatively Skewed Distribution A distribution in which most scores pile up at the high end of the scale. Positively Skewed Distribution A distribution in which scores pile up at the low end of the scale. Scatter Diagram A graph in which paired X and Y scores for each subject are plotted as single points.