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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is deviance?
Deviance is behavior violating the norms or standards of a gorup, society, or one's peers.
How does deviance vary?
By culture, over time, with situation.
What is a violation of criminal law for which formal sanctions may be applied by some governmental authority?
A crime.
What are two types of crimes?
1) crimes against persons
2) crimes against property
What are felonies?
serious crimes punishable by a year or more in prison
What is a misdemenor?
a less serious crime punishable by imprisonment for less than a year.
What are street crimes?
crimes that often occur in public settings. Are reported by FBI and given media attention.
what is a white collar crime?
crimes committed by affluent white collar in the course of conducting daily busines activities.
What are status offenses?
status offenses are only crimes because of the "status" of the people who commit them.
What is an organized crime?
crimes that are committed by a collection of criminals who regulate criminal behavior among themselves.
What are political crimes?
crimes committed within or directly against a political system
What are victimless crimes?
crimes against social order or crimes against morality such as gambling, prostitution, illegal drug use, and drunkenness.
What is social control?
the methods used for regulating human behavior in a society.
What is a type of social control exerted on a person in terms of the norms values and beliefs that they adopt when socialized into a society?
internalized social controls
What was Durkheim's view of deviance?
a functional view of deviance. identifies positives contributions of deviance to society
What was Merton's view of deviance?
deviance a consequence of structural strain in societies lacking legitiamet means to achieve shared cultural goals for every one
What is the control theory of deviance?
internalized norms are a major form of social control
What are negative sanctions?
actions directed at a personwith the intent of punishing him for some deviant behavior. IE: glare from your mother, honk of a horn, "shhhhh"
What is the term of the exclusion or banning of a person from the normal activities of a group?
What is stigmatization?
when a person is viewed as somehow socially unacceptable or disgraced.
Who tends to be victimized more?
Lower social class, men, minorities, the older they are the less likely it is
Who felt that social deviance and crime affrimed social values and norms?
Durkeim and the structrual/functional view of crime/deviance
What did Hirschi argue about social deviance?
that people have an inner control system
What was Hirschi's test regarding deviance?
Tested those students entering high school in a metropoitan area to see if those with fewer ties to their mother and father were more deviant....they were.
What did LaFree examine?
all rape cases to assess the effects of race on criminal justice outcomes.
What is social stratification?
the structure of social inequality in a society, such as wealth status and power.
What is the CASTE system?
one's social status is determined by birthright and is irrevocable.
What is a clan system?
based on birthright, but a person can marry outside of their own clan.
What is an estate system?
three main estates: the nobility, the church and peasants. estate systems permit social mobility.
What is an ascribed social status?
born with it.
What is an achieved social status?
earn through effort.
What is the functional vview of social stratification?
inequality is universal: has positive function such as assuring that most important positions in society are filled by the most competent people.
What is Marx's view of social stratification?
the conflict view including the proletariat and the capitalists. workers accept the dominant ideology of the functional view of stratification.
What did Marx predict would happen in the conflict view of stratification?
He felt that workers would overthrow into a socialist society and then a classless society.
What did Weber argue about stratification?
saw class in three deimensions: class status and power.
What is income?
the omey people recieve as rents, royalties,wages or profits.
what is wealth?
the property or economic resources owned by someone and not required for immediate consumption like buildings, cars, bank accvounts, etc.
What are the capitalists?
The super-rich top 1% who own more than the entire bottom 90%
What is the upper-middle class?
about 14% of te population. Income around $75,000 or more
What is the lower middle class?
About 30% of the population income around $40,000 per year
What is the working class?
Around 30% of the population with an income of around 25,000
What are the working poor?
About 22% belong to this class. live paycheck to paycheck.
What is the underclass?
survive only through social services. less than $13,000 per year.
What is social mobility?
chaging one's social status and changing one's social ranking in the stratification system
Did you know that Black and Latinos are 3 times as likely to be poor as are white?
Now you know.
Where is poverty most common?
central cities and rurual areas.
What are nuclear families?
family units in which a husband and his wife and their children live in the same household
What is endogamy or homogamy?
when people in the same social categories can marry
What is exogamy?
when people in different social categories marry.
What is the structural-functional theory of families?
provides socialization, social placement,
What is marital satisfaction?
the degree to which a marriage is positive or rewarding.
What is the marriage squeeze?
an imbalange of marriage-agedmen and women where one sex has substantially more limited pool of eligible marriage partners
What is a centralized economy?
concentrates economic decision-making power with a small number of individuals or firms or more likely with the state.
What is a decentralized economy?
disperses economic decision making power among a wide range of households, firms, and individuals
What is the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of work?
primary is agricultural, labor intenseive
secondary is ooods producing, capital intensive
tertiary is service sector, knowledge intensive
What are the primary and secondary labor markets?
the primary labor market has good working conditions, high pay, e job security, etc. secondary does not. temp workers, etc.
who's theory was the rationalization of work?
max weber
What is the demographic transition?
it occurs when countries change from high birthrates and death rates to low birthrates and death rates.
What are the three phases of demographic transisiton?
1)high birth rates and death rates, with little population growth
2)declining death rates due largely to reductions in infant mortality, with little or no reduction in birth rates, resulting in high population growth
3)low birth rates and death rates, with little population growth
What is the population equation?
Population=Population+births-death+net migration
What is the fertility rate?
average number of children born per woman over her lifetime
total birth rate
average number of live births per thousand women