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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marriage within one’s own group, class, and race is known as:
Endogamy
In what year were laws prohibiting interracial marriage struck down in the United States?
1967
A social structure in which a person can partner with only one other person in marriage is known as:
Monogamy
A social structure in which people can have more than one spouse at the same time is known as:
Polygamy
In some rural areas of Asia, women can have several husbands at one time. This practice is known as:
Polyandry
A traditional family consisting of a mother, father, and their biological children is known as a/an:
Nuclear Family
In the 1950s, which of the following structural functionalists identified the traditional nuclear family model as a functional necessity in modern industrial society?
Talcott Parsons
According to research in Chapter 7, what percentage of today’s U.S. families consist of a male breadwinner, a female housewife, and their children?
7
Approximately what percentage of U.S. marriages end in divorce?
40
The U.S. divorce rate has been steadily rising since:
19th Century
Approximately what percentage of Americans marry at some point in their lives?
90%
Amy and Raymond live together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning. This arrangement is known by sociologists as:
Cohabitation
John and Monique are married. Both of their parents live with them, as does John’s sister and brother-in-law, and some nieces and nephews. This is known as a:
Kinship Network
Aries wrote that children of preindustrial families were:
Thought of as “small adults”
The notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibilities and child rearing is known as:
Cult of Domesticity
The Ozzie and Harriet Nelson type of family was in its prime during which time period?
1950’s
Today, what fraction of all mothers, married or not, works outside of the home in the United States?
2/3rd
According to research in Conley’s The Pecking Order, how does the average income of daughters raised by stay-at-home mothers compare to that of daughters of working moms?
$8,000 less per year
Sarah Fenstermaker Berk has characterized the American family by examining how women and men learn to take on distinct roles paralleling the divide between public and private spheres. She call the family a:
“Gender Factory”
Who wrote The Feminine Mystique (1963)?
Betty Freidan
The domestic duties that still fall disproportionately on working women’s shoulders are labeled by Hochschild (1989) as:
Second Shift
Working wives generally get less leisure time than their husbands. This is known as:
"Leisure Gap”
According to Ruth Schwartz Cowan’s 1983 research, time-saving devices like the vacuum cleaner and washing machine have actually increased the amount of time that women spend on housework. What explanation is given for her finding?
Standards of cleanliness rose
Sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1980) has found that many women who would traditionally be expected to take care of the home and children also try to have a career. She calls this the:
Supermom Strategy
Who has argued all along that African American female-headed families are the outcome, rather than the cause, of racial oppression and poverty?
W.E.B. DuBois
Which sociologist tried to make ends meet by living on low-wage work in 1989 to study this first-hand?
Barbara Ehrenreich
Which 1996 legislation led to national welfare reform during the Clinton administration?
Personal Work, Opportunity, and Responsibility Act
Legally recognized unions of gays and lesbian couples that are explicitly intended to offer similar state-mandated legal rights and benefits of marriage as are given to heterosexual couples are known as:
Civil Unions
Broadly defined, education is:
1. The process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed.
According to your text, approximately what percentage of the nation’s population 16 years and older are functionally illiterate?
14%
Knowledge and skills that make someone more productive and bankable are known as:
Human Capital
When the Bureau of Indian Affairs attempted to “civilize” Native American children by taking them away from their homes to reduce the influence of their families, educating them in boarding schools, and forbidding them to speak languages other than English, it was attempting to ____________ the children to dominant American values.
Assimilate
What was the name of the landmark court ruling that mandated desegregation of American schools?
Brown vs. Board of Education
What was the Coleman Report?
A study conducted to see if there were measurable differences between the schools blacks and whites attended.
Results from the Coleman Report were surprising because findings indicated that:
The researcher found that the difference in resources between schools didn’t matter.
When classrooms are divided into ability levels, type of preparation, or according to future plans it is called:
Tracking
In part because of their educational success, which group has been called the “model minority” in America?
Asians
The same jobs required a high school diploma 50 years ago now require a(n) ____________________
College Degree
Defined broadly, religion is:
A system of beliefs and practices around sacred things, a asset of shared “stories” that guide the belief and action.
The sacred realm is:
Refers to holy things that are put to special use for the worship of gods or supreme beings.
Objects and behaviors that are profane are:
Things of mundane, everyday life.
Sacred things can include books, buildings, days, and places. From a sociological standpoint, the sacredness comes from:
Sacred things derive their power from the collective investment of the religious community.
Approximately what percentage of people in the world identify themselves as Christian?
33%
Protestantism is split into many different ____________, groups who share the same faith and are governed by the same administration. Examples are Baptists, Lutherans, and Methodists.
Denominations
The trend in industrial nations toward a separation between church and state, a belief in rationality and science, and the movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief is known as:
Secularism
The view of Karl Marx about religion was that it is the “opium of the masses.” What did he mean by this?
Religious convictions hold sway over people with promises of happiness in the after life, keeping them duped into remaining exploited workers in oppressive, alienating factory jobs.
According to Max Weber, in order to understand what drives social action, we must try to understand what meanings social realities have for others. This is called _______________
Verstehen
Weber wondered how ____________ entered the modern world when the pre-modern worldview was governed by ____________.
Rationality/ Tradition or habit
According to Weber which religion was a necessary condition for the development of capitalism?
Protestantism
Calvinists believed that their souls were selected for salvation before birth. This is known as:
Predestination
Weber likened the history of society to a train, and ideas to the switchmen of the tracks. What does this mean?
They hold the potential, when believed in enough and by the right people at the time, to change the course of history in unexpected, counterintuitive ways.
n what way are the conclusions of Weber and Marx similar?
Weber ends up sounding like Marx in predicting that the cold, impersonal winds of capitalism would intrude on all aspects of personal and spiritual life, erasing insufficient feelings such as religious devotion.
According to Durkheim, religion is created by ____________, and religious expressions represent ____________.
Collective representations/ Collective realities
Secularization is:
Is the straying of parts of society and culture from the grip of religious institutions and symbols.
What is pluralism?
The presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society.
What percentage of Americans claim a religious affiliation?
Over 90 percent
In its level of religiosity, the United States is similar to:
Some poor developing nations
When asked if they attend church services at least once a month, about 60% of Americans say they do. But when daily diaries of people’s activities are examined, rates of church attendance are much lower. This problem of self-reporting of positive behaviors is known within sociology as:
“Social desirability bias”
In which two early social movements were religious groups involved?
Antislavery and Temperance Movements
The linking of social movements with religion demonstrates:
Elective Affinity
College faculty members in the ____________ are much more likely to belong to churches and express religious commitment than are faculty in the ____________.
Natural, physical, and engineering sciences/ social scientists, law, humanities
For the first time in history, high-income individuals are working:
More hours than low-income individuals
What is the correct term for the fast-growing, highly educated, and well-paid segment of the workforce on whose efforts corporate profits and economic growth increasingly depend?
Creative Class
Members of the creative class differ in religious, social, and political affiliation, yet they all value:
The Face that creativity is central to their productive work
In a capitalist economic system the price and distribution of goods and services are determined by what?
Competition is an unfettered marketplace
What is the name of the economic system that developed along with the agricultural revolution and Industrial Revolution in Europe?
Capitalism
Serfs were the lowest class in the feudal system and were bound to the land they worked, yet they were not slaves. How were they different?
They were allowed to own property and could not be sold
What happened to many serfs as a result of the enclosure movement?
They had to migrate to nearby cities in search of work
During the agricultural revolution, the enclosure movement caused many former serfs to move to cities in search of work and led to the rise of:
Both the city and wage system
At the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, a massive transition was propelled by the development of new technologies. Examples of this new technology are:
Steam engine, steam-powered pumps
Monetization refers to:
The establishment of a widely accepted currency for exchange
The rise of large-scale production, the influx of peasants to urban areas to find work, and the rise of a system of wage labor caused the ____________ system to become obsolete, in favor of a new system of legal currency.
Barter
In the early days of the new monetary system, stockholders were more willing to invest in corporations because of ____________, which limits their financial liability to whatever they invested in the company.
Limited Liability
Adam Smith, the father of liberal economics, determined that groups of individuals pursuing their own self-interest manage to stay intact and not fall into the chaos of civil strife because:
Individual self-interest in an environment of others acting similarly will lead to a situation of competition, as long as basic laws and contracts are honored.
Adam Smith showed how specialization and division of labor lead to greater productivity with the example of:
Pin factory
Georg Simmel saw the development of monetary payment systems as part of a historical evolution leading to:
The depersonalization of exchange
Payment per unit, or piecework payment, has more freedom than in-kind payment because:
The worker remains in control of the payment he receives.
A system of payment whereby workers are compensated on the basis of a wage not tied to the quality of the raw materials, accidents, or other exigencies in the production process refers to:
Wage Labor
If you are a salaried worker and you miss a day of work, how does your salary change?
It doesn’t change
In what type of society is there a strong norm against mixing business with pleasure?
Modern Capitalist Society
Marx described workers as being alienated from:
The product, the process, other people, and one’s self
In contrast to Simmel, Karl Marx believed that friendship under capitalism is not possible because:
We start using the language of worth to describe the moral qualities of individuals. Time becomes monetized in a wage labor system. People who do not make money are viewed by others as forsaking the sale of their time on the wage labor market and thus are morally suspect.
Which theorist claimed that modern capitalism would not have arisen without the Protestant Reformation, which created the necessary social conditions for capitalism by creating theological insecurity and instilled a doctrine of predestination?
Max Weber
Henry Ford was heralded for his generosity and genius when he created a new type of wage system whereby male workers were paid sufficient wages to support a dependent wife and children. What term refers to this type of payment?
Family Wage
Feminist sociologists claim that the family wage is a patriarchal bargain because it implies:
It is a living wage that provides a male breadwinner but at the cost of women’s autonomy and freedom.
Money that working women earned was not expected to provide for a family. What group did this assumption harm the most?
Black women, who were eight times as likely to live without the support of a male partner.
Attitudes about gender and work became self-confirming myths and enforced women’s dependence. The unfair family wage pushed an incentive on women to:
To marry in order to survive economically
Barbara Risman equated gender inequality, in the form of marriage, to:
When life options are tied to racial categories we call it racism as its best and apartheid at the worst.
Arlie Hochschild argued that many workers seek refuge from the ____________ in the ____________.
Homes/ Workplace
According to sociologists Jerry Jacobs and Kathleen Gerson, because workers want to advance in their career, many avoid taking full advantage of:
Family-Friendly Policies
What term describes the economy that revolves around providing intangible services such as restaurant work, health-care provision, higher education, legal advice, computer tech support, and massage?
Service Sector
Which term describes the financial markets where anyone with the proper equipment can participate?
New Markets
The increasing divide between the haves and the have-nots is referred to as:
Champagne-Glass Distribution
“Parceling-out of the soul” is Max Weber’s term for people who:
People who became alienated from any sense of right or wrong and from a human connection.
Which term refers to a single seller of a good or service in the market, resulting in zero competition?
Monopoly
An oligopoly occurs when sellers of a certain product join together and decide to ____________ supply to ____________ demand, all in an effort to raise profits.
Reduce/ Drive up
A corporate strategy to reduce production cost is to lower labor costs. One publicly unfavorable way is to move all or part of the company’s operations overseas and use third world labor to minimize cost.
This is referred to as:
Off shoring
Union membership has been declining since the 1970s in the US. What are some of the reasons suggested for this decline?
There’s a common perception that unions are outdated, corrupt, and a drag on business.
What is the current rate of unionization in the US?
15 Percent