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48 Cards in this Set

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Achieved Status
status attained by personal achievement. ex. Police man
Ascribed Status
status that you have from the moment you are born ex male female
Auguste Comte
French philosopher that coined the term Sociology. He wanted to solve peoples problems by identifying social behaviors Positive basis for sociology.
Positivism
scientific observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge.
C. Wright Mills
Social imagination enables possessor to understand larger historical scene and meaning off inner life of a variety of individuals.
Private troubles
occur with in the character of the INDIVIDUAL and his/her relation to others.C. wright Mills
public issues
Mills- having to do w matters that trancend the local envt and the individual to large numbers of people. Affect masses a systemic problem
Conflict Theory
a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the role of power and coercion in producing social order.
Dependant Variable
the variable that is a presumed effect.
Exchange Therory
theory arguing behavior is determined by the rewards or punishments people receive as they interact with others
Hypothesis
a statement about what one expects to find in research
Independant variable
a variable that is presumed cause of a particular result
Participant observation
a method whereby the sociologist becomes both a participant in the group being studied ans a scientific observer of the group
Qualitative Research
research that is somewhat less structured than quantitative research but allows more interpretation and nuance in what people say. Sdurveys interviewing
Quantitative research
research that uses numerical analysis
Reliability
the likelihood that a particular measure would produce the same results if the measure were repeated
social facts
social patterns that are external to individuals
social Institutions
an established and organized system of social behavior with recognized purpose
social interaction
behavior between two or more people that is given meaning
sociological imagination
the ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life
Symbolic Interactionism
a theoretical perspective claiming that people act tword things because of the meaning things have for them
Troubles vs Issues
troubles- privately fealt problems that come from events or fellings in ones individual life.
Issues- apply to large numbers and origin is in the institution and history
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
an unethical study of about 400 syphilis-infected African American men who went untreated for the disease for 40 years, from 1932 to 1972, even though a cure (penicillin) was discovered in the early 1950s
Validity
the deghree to which an indicator accurately measures or reflects a concept
postmodernism
a theoretical perspective based in the idea that communication in all its forms is reality, such that understanding society requires studying all forms of communication, including cultural ideas, language, texts, and self conceptions
George Herbert Meade
saw the individual and the society as interdependent. individuals developed as a result of relationships w others
Society exists because it is percieved in the minds of people
Functionalism
interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability as a whole.when a part is disfunctional it creates social problems.
Collective consciousness
the body of beliefs that are common to a community or society and that give people a sense of belonging
Division of labor
the systematic interrelation of different tasks that develops in complex societies
ethnomethodology
a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy
Impression management
a process by which people control how others perceive them
macro sociological theories
analysis of the smallest, most immediately visible parts of social life, such as people interacting study the large patterns of society
micro sociological theories
looking at individual interactions. most immediately visable parts of socity
organic solidarity
unity based on role differentiation not similartity
mechanical solidarity
unity based on similarity not difference of roles
paralinguistic communication
meaning in communication that is conveyed by pitch loudness, rhythm, emphasis, and frequency
role
the expected behavior associated with a given status in society
role conflict
two or more roles associated w contradictory expectations
role strain
conflicting expectations w in the same role
status
an established position in a social structure that carries with it a degree of prestige
status inconsistancy
exists when the different statuses occupied by the individual bring with them significantly different amounts of prestige
Sui Generis
society is independant of all individuals. Society will live on after individual stops interacting with it
Dialectical Materialism
(Marx & Hegel) Marxism is a synthesis of philosifical dialects and materialism. EX thruthtruth is a product of history even whaen we make errors it is helping us develope truth
Master Status
status that supicedes all others ex mother over wife and woman
Bourgeoisie
upper or merchant class
Proletariat
lower social class
Evaluation research
assess the effects of policy & programs on a group of people.ex testing group to evaluate educational program
Policy research
Evaluation research used for policy reform or evauation