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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Altruistic Suicide
Type of suicide that occurs where ties to the group or community are considered more important than individual identity.
Anomic Suicide
Type of suicide that ovvurs when the structure of society is weakened or disrupted and people feel hopeless and disillusioned.
Comparative Method
Research technique that compares existing official statistics and historical records across groups to test a theory about some social phenomenon.
Egoistic Suicide
Type of suicide that occurs in settings where the individual is emphasized over group or community connections.
Individualistic Explanation
Tendency to attribute people's achievements and failures to their personal qualities.
Sociological Imaginaton
Ability to see the impact of social foreces on our private lives.
Achieved Status
Social position acquired through our own efforts or accimplishments or taken on voluntarily.
Ascribed Status
Social position acquired at birth or taken on involuntarily later in life.
Coalition
Subgroup of a triad, formed when two members unite against the third member.
Conflict Perspective
Theoretical perspective that views the structure of society as a source of inequality, which always benefits some groups at the expense of other groups.
Culture
Language, values, beliefs, rules, behaviors, and artifacts that characterize a society.
Dyad
Group consisting of two people.
Feminist Perspective
Theoretical perspective that focuses on gender as the most importance source of conflict and inequality in social life.
Globalization
Process through which people's lives all around the world become economically, politically, environmentally, and culturally interconnected.
Group
Set of people who interact more or less regularly and who are conscious of their identity as a unit.
Latent Function
Unintended, unrecognized consequences of activities designed to help some part of the social system.
Manifest Function
Intended, obvious consequences of activities designed to help some part of the social system.
Norm
Culturally defined standard or rule of conduct.
Organization
Large, complex network of positions, created for a specific prupose and characterized by a hierarchical division of labor.
Primary Group
Collection of individuals who are together over a relatively long period, whose members have direct contact with and feel emotional attachment to one another.
Role
Set of expectations- rights, obligations, behaviors, duties- associated with a particular status.
Role Conflict
Frustration people feel when the demnads of one role they are expected to fulfill clash with the demands of another role.
Secondary Group
Relatively impersonal collection of individuals that is established to perform a specific task.
Social Institution
Stable set of roles, statuses, groups, and organiztions- such as the institutio of education, family, politics, religion, health care, or the economy- that provides a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life.
Society
Population of people living in the same geographic rea who share a culture and a common identity and whose members fall under the same political authority.
Status
Any names social position that people can occupy.
Structural-Functionalist Perspective
Theoretical perspective that posits that social institutions are structured to maintain stability and order in society.
Symbol
Something used to represnet or stand for something else.
Symbolic Interactionalism
Theoretical perspective that explains soceity and social structure through an examination of the micro-level, peronal, day-to-day exchanges of people as individuals, pairs, or groups.
Triad
Group consisting of three people.
Value
Standard of judgment by which people decide on desirable goals and outcomes.
Analysis of Existing Data
Type of unobtrusive research that relies on data gathered ealier by someone else for some other purpose.
Content Analysis
Form of unobtrusive research that studies the content of recorded messages, such as books, speeches, poems, songs, television shows, Web sites, and advertisements.
Dependent Variable
Experimental variable that is assumed to be caused by, or to change as a result of, the independent variable.
Empirical Research
Research that operates from the ideological poisiton that questions about human behavior can be answered only through controlled, systematic observations in the real world.
Experiment
Research methid designed to elicit some sort of behavior, typically conducted under closely controlled laboratory circumstances.
Field research
Type of social research in which the researcher observes events as they actually occur.
Historical Analysis
Form of social researc hthat relies on existing historical documents as a source of data.
Hypothesis
Researchable prediction that specifies the relationship between two or more variables.
Incorrigible Proposition
Unquestioned cultural belief that cannot be proved wrong no matter what happens to dispute it.
Independent Variable
Experimental variable presumed to cause of influence the dependent variable.
Indicator
Measurable event, characteristic, or behavior commonly thought to reflect a particular concept.
Moral Entrepreneurs
Groups that work to have their moral concerns translated into law.
Nonparticipant Observation
Form of field research in which the researcher observes people without directly interacting with them and without letting them know that they are being observed.
Participant Observation
Form of fiel research in which the researcher interacts with subjects, sometimes hiding his or her identity.
Probabilistic
Capable of identifying only those forces that have ahigh lifelihood, but not a certainty, of influencing human action.
Qualitative Research
Sociological research based on nonnumerical information (text, written words, phrases, symbols, observations) that describes people, actions, or events in social life.
Quantitative Research
Sociological research based on the collection of numerical data that uses precise statistical analysis.
Representative
Typical of the whole population being studied.
Sample
Subgroup chosen for a study because its characteristics approximate those of the entire population.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
Assumption or prediction that in itself causes the expected event to occur, thus seeming to confirm the prophecy's accuracy.
Social Construction of Reality
Process through which the members of a society discover, make known, reaffirm, and alter a collective version of facts, knowledge, and "truth".