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37 Cards in this Set

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sociological imagination
(C.W. Mills) Connecting individuals to larger social forces to help see the world from a different perspective.
Ex. Look at a child's bad behavior based on the type of interactions he's getting in school
empirical
a tangible piece of evidence
Ex. an observation, hearing something, statistics, etc.
descriptive statistics
Provides hard facts and information
Ex. Census
causal connection
One thing influences another
Ex. Students better on tests when they drink coffee before the exam.
manifest function
The official defined purpose
Ex. Kids go to school in order to learn
latent function
The hidden purpose
Ex. Kids go to school to be babysat
culture
a complex whole including knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by a person as a member of society
Ex. American culture and its importance on individualism and how that affects other institutions
language
a set of symbols we use to pass on ideas using sounds and symbols that have an arbitrary but structured meaning
Ex. Speaking English in the US
symbols
an act/object that has come to have social acceptance of standing for something else
Ex. Waving means you're saying hello
material culture
tangible goods we create
Ex. Production of silk by the Chinese culture
non-material culture
Patterns for thinking, acting; learned behavior
Ex. Table manners
mores
An important norm
Ex. Killing someone
folkways
A less important norm
Ex. Invading someone's personal space
cultural relativism
(Horace Miner) in order to understand the meaning of something you have to understand the culture
Ex. Americans and the Nacirema article
society
the people who share a culture (somewhat limited by geographic space)
Ex. Members of the Brunswick community
social/cultural constructs
things created within the society/culture (not biologically driven/determined)
Ex. acceptable emotions
social institution
a type of action/interaction/organization that is especially important to a society
Ex. family, gender
social structure
shapes the ways we live in society by ordering social interactions in recurrent and stable patterns
Ex. Socioeconomic status and class
status
position within a group of society
Ex. mother, teacher
role
the expected behavior associated with a given status
Ex. Mother will take care of the children
master status
a status that is more powerful than all the others
Ex. Priest, US President
achieved status
things we gain/earn in our lifetime
Ex. college student
ascribed status
given/assigned by the group or society
Ex. race, gender
microsociobiologic approach
study of everyday behavior in situation of face-to-face interaction
Ex. Observe children in a classroom
macrosociobiologic approach
look at the larger systems and see how they work
Ex. Focus on the impact of a natural disaster on global economy, etc.
looking glass self
(George Herbert Mead) the way we develop our sense of self is based on how people react to us and how we interact with them
dramaturgical theory
(Erving Goffman) what we do in front of people doesn't necessarily reflect who we are
socialization
how people learn how to be members of a society
primary socialization
socialization when we are babies
Ex. Parents teach children how to act in different situations
secondary socialization
experience a change in our group or community and learn how to interact within that environment
Ex. Move into a new neighborhood and learn the routine
deviance
when people violate the norms of society
Ex. Having bright pink hair
labeling theory
label behavior as deviant to protect what they have and they have the power to do so
Ex. Heterosexuals against homosexual marriage
cultural universals
certain values shared universally
Ex. a broad definition of family
values
broad ideas of what’s desireable/correct
Ex. Hard work
norms
observable social rules that specify appropriate/inappropriate behavior; determined by values
Ex. Laws
sanctions
punishment for violating norms
Ex. Jail, ostracism
role conflict
roles compete with actions or decisions
Ex. physician wants people to get better but also wants to make money