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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Society brings about acceptance of basic norms through techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior. This process is termed
a. stigmatization.
b. labeling.
c. law.
d. social control
social control
Which sociological perspective argues that people must respect social norms if any group or society is to survive?
a. the conflict perspective
b. the interactionist perspective
c. the functionalist perspective
d. the feminist perspective
functionalist
Stanley Milgram used the word conformity to mean
a. going along with peers.
b. compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
c. techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
d. penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
going along with peers
Which sociological theory suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society’s norms?
a. feminist theory
b. control theory
c. interactionist theory
d. functionalist theory
interactionist
Which of the following statements is true of deviance?
a. Deviance is always criminal behavior.
b. Deviance is behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
c. Deviance is perverse behavior.
d. Deviance is inappropriate behavior that cuts across all cultures and social orders.
violates the standards of conduct or expectations
Which sociologist illustrated the boundary-maintenance function of deviance in his study of Puritans in 17th-century New England?
a. Kai Erikson
b. E´mile Durkheim
c. Robert Merton
d. Edwin Sutherland
Kai Erikson
Which of the following is not one of the basic forms of adaptation specified in Robert Merton’s anomie theory of deviance?
a. conformity
b. innovation
c. ritualism
d. hostility
hostility
Which sociologist first advanced the idea that an individual undergoes the same basic socialization process whether learning conforming or deviant acts?
a. Robert Merton
b. Edwin Sutherland
c. Travis Hirschi
d. William Chambliss
Edwin Sutherland
Which of the following theories contends that criminal victimization increases when communal relationships and social institutions break down?
a. labeling theory
b. conflict theory
c. social disorganization theory
d. differential association theory
social disorganization
10. Which of the following conducted observation research on two groups of high school males (the Saints and the Roughnecks) and concluded that social class played an important role in the varying fortunes of the two groups?
a. Richard Quinney
b. Edwin Sutherland
c. E´mile Durkheim
d. William Chambliss
William Chambliss
If we fail to respect and obey social norms, we may face punishment through informal or formal ____________________
sanctions
Police officers, judges, administrators, employers, military officers, and managers of movie theaters are all instruments of ____________________ social control.
formal
Some norms are considered so important by a society that they are formalized into ____________________ controlling people’s behavior.
laws
It is important to underscore the fact that ____________________ is the primary source of conformity and obedience, including obedience to law
socialization
____________________ is a state of normlessness that typically occurs during a period of profound social change and disorder, such as a time of economic collapse.
Anomie
Labeling theory is also called the ____________________-____________________ approach.
societal-reaction
___________________ theorists view standards of deviant behavior as merely reflecting cultural norms, whereas ____________________ and
____________________ theorists point out that the most powerful groups in a society can shape laws and standards and determine who is (or is not)
prosecuted as a criminal
Functionalist; conflict; labeling
Organizations such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) and Students Against Drunk Driving (SADD) have had success in recent years in shifting public
attitudes about drunkenness, so that it is no longer viewed as a ____________________ crime
victimless
Daniel Bell used the term ____________________ ____________________ to describe the process during which leadership of organized crime was transferred
from Irish Americans to Jewish Americans and later to Italian Americans and others
ethnic succession
Consumer fraud, bribery, and income tax evasion are considered ____________________-____________________ crimes
white-collar
Which of the following describes a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power?
a. stratification
b. status inconsistency
c. slavery
d. social inequality
social inequality
In Karl Marx’s view, the destruction of the capitalist system will occur only if the working class first develops
a. bourgeois consciousness.
b. false consciousness.
c. class consciousness.
d. caste consciousness.
class consciousness
Which of the following were viewed by Max Weber as analytically distinct components of stratification?
a. conformity, deviance, and social control
b. class, status, and power
c. class, caste, and age
d. class, prestige, and esteem
class, status, and power
Which sociological perspective argues that stratification is universal and that social inequality is necessary so that people will be motivated to fill socially important positions?
a. the functionalist perspective
b. the conflict perspective
c. the interactionist perspective
d. the labeling perspective
functionalist
British sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf views social classes as groups of people who share common interests resulting from their authority relationships. Dahrendorf’s ideology aligns best with which theoretical perspective?
a. the functionalist perspective
b. the conflict perspective
c. the interactionist perspective
d. sociocultural evolution
conflict
The respect or admiration that an occupation holds in a society is referred to as
a. status.
b. esteem.
c. prestige.
d. ranking.
prestige
Approximately how many out of every nine people in the United States live(s) below the poverty line established by the federal government?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
one
Which sociologist has applied functionalist analysis to the existence of poverty and argues that various segments of society actually benefit from the existence of the poor?
a. Émile Durkheim
b. Max Weber
c. Karl Marx
d. Herbert Gans
Karl Marx
The poor, minorities, and those who live in rural communities and inner cities are not as likely to have access to the Internet as other members of the United States. This situation is called
a. the cybervoid.
b. electronic redlining.
c. the digital divide.
d. none of the above
digital divide
A plumber whose father was a physician is an example of
a. downward intergenerational mobility.
b. upward intergenerational mobility.
c. downward intragenerational mobility.
d. upward intragenerational mobility
downward intergenerational mobility
____________________ is the most extreme form of legalized social inequality for individuals or groups.
Slavery
In the ____________________ system of stratification, or feudalism, peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services.
Estate
Karl Marx viewed ____________________ differentiation as the crucial determinant of social, economic, and political inequality.
class
14
____________________ ____________________ is the term Thorstein Veblen used to describe the extravagant spending patterns of those at the top
of the class hierarchy.
Conspicuous consumption
____________________ poverty is the minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below.
Absolute
16. ____________________ poverty is a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged
in comparison with the nation as a whole.
Relative
Sociologist William Julius Wilson and other social scientists have used the term ____________________ to describe the long-term poor who lack training and skills
underclass
Max Weber used the term ____________________ ____________________ to refer to people’s opportunities to provide themselves with material goods,
positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
life chances
An open class system implies that the position of each individual is influenced by the person’s ____________________ status
achieved
____________________ mobility involves changes in social position within a person’s adult life
Intragenerational
Sociologists have identified five basic properties of a minority group. Which of the following is not one of those properties?
a. unequal treatment
b. physical traits
c. ascribed status
d. cultural bias
cultural bias
The largest racial minority group in the United States is
a. Asian Americans.
b. African Americans.
c. Native Americans.
d. Jewish Americans.
African
Racism is a form of which of the following?
a. ethnocentrism
b. discrimination
c. prejudice
d. both discrimination and prejudice
prejudice
Suppose that a White employer refuses to hire a Vietnamese American and hires an inferior White applicant. This decision is an act of
a. prejudice.
b. ethnocentrism.
c. discrimination.
d. stigmatization.
discrimination
Suppose that a workplace requires that only English be spoken, even when it is not a business necessity to restrict the use of other languages. This requirement would be an example of
a. prejudice.
b. scapegoating.
c. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
d. institutional discrimination.
institutional discrimination
Working together as computer programmers for an electronics firm, a Hispanic woman and a Jewish man overcome their initial prejudices and come to appreciate each other’s strengths and talents. This scenario is an example of
a. the contact hypothesis.
b. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
c. amalgamation.
d. reverse discrimination.
contact hypothesis
Intermarriage over several generations, resulting in various groups combining to form a new group, would be an example of
a. amalgamation.
b. assimilation.
c. segregation.
d. pluralism.
amalgamation
Alphonso D’Abruzzo changed his name to Alan Alda. His action is an example of
a. amalgamation.
b. assimilation.
c. segregation.
d. pluralism.
amalgamation
OR
assimilation
9. In which of the following racial or ethnic groups has one teenager in every six attempted suicide?
a. African Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. Native Americans
d. Latinos
Native Americans
10. Advocates of Marxist class theory argue that the basis for racial subordination in the United States lies within the capitalist economic system. Another representation of this point of view is reflected in which of the following theories?
a. exploitation
b. functionalist
c. interactionist
d. contact
exploitation
Sociologists consider race and ethnicity to be ____________________ statuses, since people are born into racial and ethnic groups
ascribed
The one-drop rule was a vivid example of the social ____________________ of race—the process by which people come to define a group as a race based in part on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors
construction
____________________ are unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group
Stereotypes
Sociologists use the term ____________________ to refer to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority
prejudice
When White Americans can use credit cards without suspicion, and browse through stores without being shadowed by security guards, they are enjoying____________________ ___________________
white rivilege
____________________ ____________________ refers to positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
Affirmative action
After the Civil War, the Southern states passed “____________________ ____________________” laws to enforce official segregation, and the Supreme Court upheld them as constitutional in 1896
Jim Crow
In the 1960s, proponents of ____________________ ____________________ rejected the goal of assimilation into White, middle.class society. They defended the beauty and dignity of Black and African cultures and supported the creation of Black.controlled political and economic institutions
Black power
Asian Americans are held up as a(n) ____________________ or ____________________ minority group, supposedly because despite past suffering from prejudice and discrimination, they have succeeded economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to confrontations with Whites
Model Ideal
Together, the various groups included under the general category ____________________ represent the largest minority group in the United States
Latinos OR Hispanics
Both males and females are physically capable of learning to cook and sew, yet most Western societies determine that women should perform these tasks. This illustrates the operation of
a. gender roles
b. sociobiology
c. homophobia
d. comparable worth.
gender roles
An important element in traditional views of proper “masculine” and “feminine” behavior is fear of homosexuality. This fear, along with accompanying prejudice, is referred to as
a. lesbianism
b. femme fatalism
c. homophobia
d. claustrophobia.
homophobia
The most crucial agents of socialization in teaching gender roles in the United States are
a. peers
b. teachers
c. media personalities
d. parents
parents
Research by anthropologists Margaret Mead and Peggy Reeves Sanday has shown that
a. biology is the most important factor in determining the social roles of males and females.
b. cultural conditioning is the most important factor in determining the social roles of males and females.
c. biology and cultural conditioning have an equal impact in determining the social roles of males and females.
d. biology and cultural conditioning have a negligible impact in determining the social roles of males and females.
cultural conditioning is the most important factor in determining the social roles of males and females
Which sociological perspective acknowledges that it is not possible to change gender roles drastically without dramatic revisions in a culture’s social structure?
a. functionalist perspective
b. conflict perspective
c. interactionist perspective
d. both a and b
both
functionalist perspective
and
conflict perspective
The term sexism is generally used to refer to a. female prejudice and discrimination against men
b. male prejudice and discrimination against women
c. female discrimination against men and male discrimination against
women equally
d. discrimination between members of the same sex.
male prejudice and discrimination against women
Which of these statements is true? a. More boys than girls take AP exams
b. Women in the United States are more likely to attend college than men
c. Women in the United States are less likely to obtain doctoral degrees than men
d. all of the above
Women in the United States are more likely to attend college than men
Which sociological perspective distinguishes between instrumental and expressive roles?
a. functionalist perspective
b. conflict perspective
c. interactionist perspective
d. labeling theory
functionalist perspective
Contemporary feminists recognize the differential treatment of some women, not only because of their gender, but also because of their
a. race
b. ethnicity
c. socioeconomic status
d. all of the above
all of the above
The sense of sisterhood that became evident during the rise of the contemporary feminist movement resembled the Marxist concept of
a. alienation
b. dialectics
c. class consciousness
d. false consciousness.
class consciousness
Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales contend that women take the ____________________, emotionally supportive role in the family and that men take the ____________________, practical role, with the two complementing each other
expressive; instrumental
A significant component of the ____________________ approach to gender stratification draws on feminist theory
conflict
It is not simply that particular men in the United States are biased in their treatment of women. All the major institutions of our society—including the govern-
ment, the armed forces, large corporations, the media, the universities, and the medical establishment—are controlled by men. This situation is symptomatic of institutional ____________________
discrimination
Women from all groups and men from minority groups sometimes encounter attitudinal or organizational bias that prevents them from reaching their full potential. This is known as the___________________
glass ceiling
Sociologist Arlie Hochschild has used the phrase ____________________ ____________________ to describe the double burden that many women face and few men share equitably: work outside the home followed by child care and housework
second shift
Within the general framework of their theory, ____________________ sociologists maintain that gender differentiation has contributed to overall social stability
functionalist
Through the rise of contemporary ____________________, women are developing a greater sense of group solidarity
feminism
____________________ contributes significantly to rigid gender-role socialization, since many people stereotypically associate male homosexuality with femininity and lesbianism with masculinity
homophobia
The term ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ was coined by feminist theorist Patricia Hill Collins to describe the convergence of social forces that contributes to the subordinate status of poor, non-White women
matrix of domination
The author of the pioneering argument for women’s rights, The Feminine Mystique, is____________________
Betty Friedan
The early writings on collective behavior imply that crowds are basically
a. functional.
b. value-added.
c. structured.
d. ungovernable
ungovernable
The emergent-norm perspective has been criticized for being too vague in defining what constitutes a
a. riot.
b. crowd.
c. belief.
d. norm
norm
In sociological terms, which of the following constitute a crowd?
a. spectators at a baseball game
b. participants at a college pep rally
c. urban rioters
d. all of the above
all of the above
The least organized and most individualized form of collective behavior is represented by
a. rumors.
b. publics.
c. fashions.
d. panics
publics
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that rumors serve a function by providing a group with a shared belief?
a. the functionalist perspective
b. the conflict perspective
c. the interactionist perspective
d. labeling theory
functionalist
From the point of view of theorists of collective behavior, there can be no public opinion unless there is both
a. a public and mass media.
b. a decision maker and mass media.
c. a public and a decision maker.
d. relative deprivation and resource mobilization
a public and a decision maker
The most all-encompassing type of collective behavior is
a. public opinion.
b. social movements.
c. rumors.
d. crowds
social movements
From the point of view of social scientists, call-in telephone polls using 1-900 numbers are misleading because
a. of the Hawthorne effect.
b. the sample that emerges is hardly representative.
c. they rely on improper resource mobilization.
d. all of the above
the sample that emerges is hardly representative
“Collective enterprises to establish a new order of life” refers to
a. public opinion.
b. social movements.
c. rumors.
d. crowds
social movements
The resource mobilization perspective would be most interested in looking at the influence of ____________________ on social movements.
a. tenacity
b. desire
c. emotion
d. money
money
Like other social norms, the emergent norm reflects shared convictions held by members of a group, and is enforced through ____________________
sanctions
Building on the ____________________ perspective, Clark McPhail and David Miller introduced the concept of the assembling process
interactionist
The term ____________________ refers to a sudden or disruptive event or set of events that overtaxes a community’s resources, so that outside aid is necessary
disaster
Members of a(n) ____________________ may adopt a fad or fashion in order to break with tradition while remaining “in” with (accepted by) a significant reference group of peers
subculture
In the wake of many natural and technological disasters, decision making becomes more ____________________ than in normal times
centralized
The ____________________ perspective emphasizes that even when unsuccessful, social movements contribute to the formation of public opinion
functionalist
A relatively deprived person is dissatisfied because he or she feels deprived relative to some appropriate ____________________ group
reference
As Max Weber described it in 1904, ____________________ is the quality of an individual that sets him or her apart from ordinary people
charisma
As Robert Michels pointed out, social movements often become more ____________________ over time
bureaucratic
The SSKKMS movement was unusual when compared to other social movements in India in that about one-half of its participants, and many of its leaders, were
____________________
women