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34 Cards in this Set

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Social interaction
the process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationship and groups in society
social structure
is complex framework of societal institutions and the social practices that make up a society and that organize and establish limites on peoples behavior
Status
a socially defined position in a group of society characterized by certain expectations, rights and duties
status set
all the statues that a person occupies at a given time
ascribed status
a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age and gender
achieved status
a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort
master status
the most imporntant status that a person occupies
status symbol
A material sign that informs others ofa person's specific status
role
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status
role expectations a
a group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played
role preformance
how a person actually plays a role
role conflict
a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time
role strain
a condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies
role exit
a stiuation in which peopole disengage from social roles that have been central to their self identity
Social group
a group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and feelings of interdependence.
Primary group
a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face to face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time
secondary group
a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-orinted relationships for a limited period of time
formal organizations
a highly structered group formed for the purpose of completing certain taks or achieving specific goals
social institution
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
Division of labor
how the various tasks of a society are divided up and preformed
mechanical solidarity
Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds
organic solidarity
Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people preform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
Gemeinschaft ( guh-MINE-shoft)
a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendships are kinship and on intergenerational stability
Geshellchaft (guh-ZELL-shoft)
a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values
industrial society
a society based on technology that mechanizes production
Postindustrial society
a society in which technology supports a service and information based economy
Social construction of reality
the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience
self-fulfilling profhecy
the situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
ethnomethodology
the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves
dramaturgical analysis
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation
impression management
(presentation of self)
Erving Goffman's term for people's efforts to present themselves together
in ways that we are most favorable to their own interests or image
fac-saving behavior
Erving Goffman's term for the strategies we use to rescue our preformance when we experience a potential or actual loss of face
Nonverbal communication
the transfer of information between persons without the use of words
Perosnal space
the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private