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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 key elements of social psychology
- person
- situation
- perception
Why there are no truly objective situations.
People construe situations differently.
dispositional attribution
Assumption that a person's behavior is the result of PERSONALITY (disposition) rather than PRESSURES existing in the situation.
variables that increase conformity
- unanimity
* 3 or more in majority

- group characteristics
* experts
* importance
* similarity
variables that decrease conformity
- ally
- accountability
- commitment to initial judgment
- the person
* high self-esteem
* culture
- prior success
reasons for conforming
- avoid punishment / gain reward
- information in unclear situations
responses to social influence
- compliance
- identification
- internalization
compliance (motivating factor)
- desire to gain reward / avoid punishment
compliance (permanence)
- lasts only as long as reward or punishment is present
compliance (key component)
- power of influencer
identification (motivating factor)
- desire to be like the influencer
identification (key component)
- attractiveness of person identified
internalization (motivating factor)
- the desire to be right
internalization (key component)
- credibility of the person supplying information
secondary gain
Discovering something about our actions that makes it worthwhile to continue the behavior even after the original reason for compliance (reward or punishment) is no longer there.
factors affecting obedience
- physical absence of authority figure
- physical proximity to subject
- legitimate authority
bystander effect
presence of another bystander tends to inhibit action
reasons for bystander apathy
- diffusion of responsibility
- ambiguity of situation as emergency
factors that decrease bystander apathy
- definition of situation as an emergency
- common fate
- no escape from situation
- little cost
- appraisal of whether their help will really benefit the victim
- act of imparting knowledge or skill
- systematic propagation of a given doctrine
- deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures (to preserve friendly intra-group relations)
- cohesive group isolated from dissenting views
6 problems in decision making
1. discussions limited to a few alternatives
2. do not re-examine initial decision
3. neglect course of action initially evaluated (other potential options)
4. no attempt to gain information from experts
5. selective bias
6. failure to work out contingency plans
how to reduce groupthink
- assign critical evaluator
- encourage dissent
- call in an objective outsider to challenge the group
- play devil's advocate
social norms
- rules within a given group suggesting what is appropriate
two types of social norms
- descriptive
- injunctive
descriptive norm
- describe what most people do in a given situation
- informs us of what is seen as ADAPTIVE / beneficial
- specifies what OUGHT to be done (what is approved or disapproved in given situation)
value-laden labels
- what words we use to describe conformity can give "conformity" different meanings
social facilitation
- when the presence of others is energizing
social facilitation - perform better when task is ______
- simple
social facilitation - perform worse when task is ______
- complicated
social loafing
- individual performance cannot be evaluated
- perform better in complex tasks
- perform worse in simple tasks
how to reduce social loafing
- individual evaluation
- expert
- trustworthy
factors that increase trustworthiness
- when communicator has nothing to gain by persuading us
- when message conflicts with communicator's own self-interest
- when we think communicator is not trying to influence or persuade us
self-esteem & fear appeal
- high self-esteem are more moved by fear than those with low self-esteem
fear messages require _____
- specific instructions
fear messages without specific instructions will _________
- influence attitudes and intentions, bbut not actual behavior
primacy effect
- first argument most effective
- 1st inhibits the 2nd argument
recency effect
- last argument most effective
- most retention from most recent