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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
attitudes
- evaluative reactions toward a person, thing, event, or issue
(rooted in beliefs, exhibited in feelings, result in inclination___?)
attitudes and behavior- do attitudes predict behavior?
- attitudes can tell us how people will act, but not always
- this is because behavior is subject to many influences
influences that behavior is subject to- DA, CEA, UR, S, B:E and LoC
- dual attitudes: contradictory explicit and implicit attitudes toward the same object (conscious v. automatic without awareness)
- Conflicting explicit attitudes
- unreliable reports of attitudes- may deny an attitude because of social desirability, may not be aware of an attitude (dual attitudes)
- the situation- strong or weak. strong situations overwhelm attitudes
- beliefs about efficacy, locus of control
theory of planned behavior (Azjen and Fishbein)- behavior is guided by?
- attitudes toward behavior
- perception of whether others will approve of behavior
- beliefs of how easy it will be to perform the behavior- perceived control
When do attitudes predict behavior?: Situations that limit social influence on expressed attitudes? PM, BP (ex. LD), RTM (ex. IAT)
- Physiological measurements- occur during a certain attitude ex) heart rate, sweat
- "Bogus pipelines"- methods that make people believe the researcher will know whether or not they are telling the truth ex) lie detectors
- reaction time measurements- ex) implicit association test
when do attitudes predict behavior?- MSI, MBI, ASB, AP
- when social influences on expressed attitudes is minimal- ex) physiological measurements, bogus pipelines, reaction time measurements
- when other influences on behavior are minimal- ex) principle of aggregation (av. behavior over time)
- when attitudes are specific to the behavior are examined
- when attitudes are potent- ex) novel situations, attitudes are made salient, induced self-awareness, strongly held)
When do attitudes predict behavior?: Situations that limit behavioral influence on expressed attitudes- principle of aggregation
- PoA= average behavior over time reflects effects of attitudes more than a single behavior does
- ex)church attendance: attitude may be positive towards church, but the next 2 weeks may be busy. Over time attitude would be revealed more clearly
When do attitudes predict behavior?: when attitudes are potent- NS, AMS, IS-A, SH
- novel situations- we dont know how to behave in new situations so we fall back on our already existing beliefs and skills
- Attitudes made salient (noticeable)- when people become aware of their attitudes they are more likely to act upon them
- induced self-awareness- makes attitudes more salient, makes us act on our attitudes ex) mirrors
- strongly held- the more strongly we hold an attitude, the more we are likely to make our behavior consistent with it
When do attitudes predict behavior?: when attitudes are specific to the behavior examined- general attitudes, specific attitudes
- general attitudes dont predict specific behaviors ex) belief in exercise
- specific attitudes do predict specific behaviors ex) belief in running
what shapes our attitudes?- CC (EC), OC, UER
- classical conditioning- emotional conditioning ex) Little albert is conditioned to fear bunny rabbit because of sound of bell- can occur below level of conscious awareness
- operant conditioning- if behavior is reinforced (rewarded) it will increase in frequency; if not, or if it is punished, it is less likely to occur
-- accompanying this increase/decrease will be an attitude consistent with the behavior
- BUT Unexpected effects of rewards- sometimes rewards can decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring
unexpected affects of rewards- Deci puzzle task, Lepper drawing
- Deci- once group 2 was given an incentive for the behavior, the behavior increased, but the behavior decreased after the incentive was not given
- Lepper- children enjoyed drawing the most when they were given a reward as a SURPRISE. students who were not given a reward enjoyed drawing more than students knowingly given the reward
extrinsic motivation v. intrinsic motivation
- extrinsic: performance of an activity to obtain EXTERNAL REWARDS (incentives)
- intrinsic: performance of an activity for its INHERENT SATISFACTION (meet challenges, extend one's capacities, learn for its own sake, play)
Locus of causality (Rich deCharms)- internal v. external
- internal- experience of behavior as freely chosen
- external- experience of behavior as caused by the environment or outside forces
self-determination theory (Deci)- what do extrinsic rewards do? what does this promote?
- extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation and change attitudes by promoting external locus of causality
-- rewards can reduce the frequency of a behavior
- rewards can make our attitudes toward a behavior or situation more negative
- MISSED*
self-determination theory: psychological needs for self-determination- A, C, R
- autonomy- experience oneself as the origin or source of one's own behavior (internal locus of causality)
- competence- experience oneself as effective in one's interactions with the environment having opportunities to exercise one's capacities
- relatedness- experience oneself as connected to, caring for, others*MISSED
- relatedness
autonomy and control- autonomous action
- fully endorsed, experienced as chosen freely
- done because of intrinsic values to self
- authentic
autonomy and control- controlled action
- coerced, seduced, obligated
- done to gain external reward or satisfy pressure
- alienated (done for reasons outside of us)
autonomy and control- overjustification effect
- anything that brings behavior under external control DECREASES INTRINSIC MOTIVATION (and will negatively influence our attitudes towards that behavior)
what shapes our attitudes? SL (RG), ME
- Social learning (observational learning)- attitudes are shaped by observing behavior of models
--ex) reference groups- a group to which people orient themselves (large and inclusive or small), emotional attachment to group, judge self and world by groups standards, turn to group for guidance
- Mere exposure- simply exposing a person repeatedly to a particular object causes them to develop a more positive attitude toward the object
--does not require action toward the object or the development of beliefs about the object
behavior can shape attitudes by? ToSR, SBB
- taking on a social role (temporarily or enduringly)
- saying becomes believing
attributions: internal, external, stable, unstable, controllable, uncontrollable
- the process by which people use information to make inferences about the causes of behavior or events
- internal: locates the cause to be internal to the person (ex. personality traits, moods, attitudes, ability, effort
- external: locates the cause to be external to the person (ex. luck, other people, situational factors
- stable: the cause is permanent and unvarying
- unstable: the cause is temporary and fluctuating
- controllable- the cause is within the persons control
- uncontrollable- the cause is not within the persons control
trait
- a stable, internal attribution
- a personality characteristic
3 factors depend on if we make stable internal attributions: consistency
- to what extent does the person react to the same situation in the same way on other occasions?
3 factors depend on if we make stable internal attributions: distinctiveness
- to what extent is the person's behavior specific to this particular situation
3 factors depend on if we make stable internal attributions: consensus
- to what extent do others react in the same way in this situation?