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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Summary of the text in an article or publication.
Database that indexes publishing data for books, periodical articles, government reports, statistics, patents, research reports, conference proceedings, and dissertations
bibliographic database
Words you can use to create specific phrases that broaden or narrow your search on the Internet.
Boolean operators
Collections of information stored electronically so they are easy to find and retrieve
Database that indexes the complete text of newspapers, periodicals, encyclopedias, research reports, court cases, books, and the like
full-text database
Stealing an entire speech from a single source and presenting it as your own
global plagiarism
Presenting select portions from a single speech as your own
incremental plagiarism
Alphabetical listing of the topics discussed in a specific publication, along with the corresponding year, volume, and page numbers
When we take in more information than we can process but realize there still is more information we are expected to know
information overload
Electronic communications network that links computer networks around the world via telephone lines, cables, and communication satellites
Planned interaction with another person that is organized around inquiry and response, with one person asking questions while the other person answers them
Constructing a complete speech that you present as your own from portions of several different sources
patchwork plagiarism
Presenting another person’s words and ideas as your own.
List of all the potential sources you’ll use as you prepare your speech.
preliminary bibliography
Question that fills out or follows up an answer to a previous question.
List of the types of information you have for your speech and the types you want to find
research inventory
System that allows users to easily navigate the millions of sites on the Internet.
World Wide Web
Unreasoned distortion of judgment or prejudice about a topic.
Story that takes only a short time to tell and illustrates a specific point (sometimes called vignette).
brief narrative
Assertion that must be proved.
Subjective meaning of a word or phrase based on personal experiences and beliefs.
connotative definition
Statement of the exact meaning of a word or phrase.
Objective definition of a word or a phrase you find in a dictionary.
denotative definition
Exact word-for-word presentation of another’s testimony.
direct quotation
History of a word.
Materials that speakers use to support their ideas.
Specific instance used to illustrate a concept, experience, issue, or problem.
Testimony of someone considered an authority in a particular field.
expert testimony
Story that takes longer to tell and can be integrated into a speech more fully.
extended narrative
Instance that did not take place but could have.
hypothetical example
Process in which stories reference other stories or rely on parts of other stories to be complete.
Average of a group of numbers.
Middle number in a series or set of numbers arranged in a ranked order.
Number that occurs most often in a set of numbers.
Story that re-creates or foretells real or hypothetical events.
Having a fair, ethical, and undistorted view on a question or issue.
Summary of another’s testimony in the speaker’s own words.
Testimony of someone who has firsthand knowledge of a topic (sometimes called lay testimony).
peer testimony
Your own testimony that you use to convey your point.
personal testimony
Instance that actually took place.
real example
Numerical summaries of facts, figures, and research findings.
Opinions or observations of others
Pattern of organization that describes a cause-and-effect relationship between ideas.
causal pattern
Pattern of organization that traces a sequence of events or ideas.
chronological pattern
Word or a phrase used to link ideas in a speech.
Statement in the body of a speech that details what the speaker plans to discuss next
internal preview
Statement in the body of a speech that summarizes a point a speaker has already discussed.
internal summary
Most important ideas you address in your speech.
main points
Systematic arrangement of ideas into a coherent whole.
Pattern of organization that identifies a specific problem and offers a possible solution.
problem-and-solution pattern
Simple word or statement that lets an audience know where a speaker is in a speech or that indicates an important idea
Pattern of organization in which ideas are arranged in terms of location or direction.
spatial pattern
Pattern of organization that allows the speaker to divide a topic into subtopics, each of which addresses a different aspect of the whole topic.
topical pattern
Phrase that indicates a speaker is finished with one point and moving on to a new one.
Listener who needs to hear verbal explanations and descriptions to learn well
auditory listener
Local or regional informal dialect or expression.
Recognizing, acknowledging, and expressing value for another person.
Speech that eases the audience’s burden of processing information.
considerate speech
Listener who listens for the accuracy of a speech’s content and the implications of a speaker’s message.
critical listener
Language that respectfully recognizes the differences among the many cultures in our society.
culturally inclusive language
Listener who overcomes listener interference to better understand a speaker’s message.
effective listener
Listener who considers the moral impact of a speaker’s message on one’s self and one’s community.
ethical listener
Word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant.
Listener who needs to touch, explore, and participate in what is being described.
experiential listener
Language recognizing that both women and men are active participants in the world.
gender-inclusive language
Vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the impulses then sent to the brain.
Anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message.
Technical language used by a special group or for a special activity.
Speech that is considerate and delivered in an oral style.
listenable speech
Process of giving thoughtful attention to another person’s words and understanding what you hear.
Informal nonstandard vocabulary, usually made up of arbitrarily changed words.
Practice of highlighting a person’s race or ethnicity (or sex, sexual orientation, physical disability, and the like) during a speech
Extra words that pad sentences and claims but don’t add meaning.
verbal clutter
Listener who needs to see something to understand it and how it works.
visual listener
Relationship of the items on a visual aid to one another.
Graph that compares quantities at a specific moment in time.
bar graph
Display of how something is done or how it works.
Diagram sketch of someone or something.
Chart that illustrates direction or motion.
flow chart
Type or style of print.
Size of the letters in a particular font measured in points
font size
Visual comparison of amounts or quantities that show growth, size, proportions, or relationships.
Graph that shows trends over time.
line graph
Series of words or phrases that organize ideas one after the other.
Visual representation of geographical features, urban areas, roads, stars and planets, and the like.
Copy of an object, usually built to scale, that represents an object in detail.
Something that can be seen or touched.
Chart that illustrates the makeup of groups.
organizational chart
Graph that presents information in pictures or images.
picture graph
Graph that shows the relative proportions of parts of a whole.
pie graph
Environment in which a speaker has expertise or knowledge that an audience needs but doesn’t already have.
informative speaking environment
Speech that communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a person or place, an object, or a concept
informative speech
Informative speech about an abstraction, such as an idea, a theory, a principle, a worldview, or a belief.
speech about a concept
Informative speech that describes a significant, interesting, or unusual place or person.
speech about a place or a person
Informative speech that describes how something is done, how something comes to be what it is, or how something works.
speech about a process
Informative speech that describes or explains a significant, interesting, or unusual occurrence.
speech about an event
Informative speech about anything that is tangible, that can be perceived by the senses.
speech about an object
Planned interaction with another person organized around inquiry and response
research interviews
types of support for claims (5)
types of organizational patterns (5)
problems and solutions
Physical process of producing specific speech sounds to make language intelligible.
Speaking style that is more formal than everyday conversation but remains spontaneous and relaxed.
conversational style
Action and manner of speaking to an audience.
Pattern of speech that is shared among ethnic groups or people from specific geographical locations.
Speech that is carefully prepared and practiced from brief notes rather than from memory or a written manuscript.
extemporaneous speech
Visual contact with another person’s eyes.
eye contact
Movements, usually of the hands but sometimes of the full body, that express meaning and emotion or offer clarity to a message.
Speech that is not planned or prepared in advance.
impromptu speech
Manipulation of pitch to create certain meanings or moods.
Speech that is read to an audience from a written text.
manuscript speech
Speech that has been written out, committed to memory, and given word for word.
memorized speech
Way of speaking in which a speaker does not alter her or his pitch.
Hesitations and brief silences in speech or conversation
Way speakers dress, groom, and present themselves physically.
personal appearance
Highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice on the musical scale.
Way speakers position and carry their bodies.
Act of saying words correctly according to the accepted standards of a language.
Use of space during communication.
Speed at which a speaker speaks.
Changes in the volume, rate, and pitch of a speaker’s voice that affect the meaning of the words delivered.
vocal variety
Pauses that speakers fill with words or sounds like “um,” “er,” or “uh.”
vocalized pauses
Loudness of a speaker’s voice.
4 methods of speech delivery