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43 Cards in this Set

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Dosage forms (DF)
- is the physical form of a dose of a chemical compound used as a drug or medication intended for administration or consumption.
What are the advantages of tablets?
Compactness, portability, accuracy, convenience, and lack of taste
What are chewable tablets?
Compressed tablets, designed to be chewed, or dissolved in the mouth prior to swallowing.
How are chewable tablets administered in the event that a solid tablet cannot be obtained?
Chewable tablets may be swallowed whole without chewing.
Tablets
1) Most popular dosage form
2) Solid dosage form prepared by mechanical compression
3) Dissolution= must be dissolved in the stomach before it can elicit its pharmacological effect
Chewable tablets
1) chewed and dissolved in the mouth prior to swallowing
2) they also can be swallowed whole
Enteric-coated tablets - Will be on the test
1) special coating over tablet to prevent the dissolution within the stomach.
2) these tablets are meant to dissolve in the intestines only.
3) should NEVER be chewed, broken or crushed prior to ingestion.
4) not to be taken with antacids which cause dissolution in the stomach.
5) disintegrate in higher pH intestine, not low pH stomach
Sublingual tablets - Will be on the test
1) placed “under the tongue” where the active ingredient is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream
---absorption is not in the GI tract
2) only small amounts of drug are needed
3) avoids the “first pass” effect - this is where the drug circulates throughout the body before it is
broken down in the liver (metabolized)
Buccal tablets
1) “between cheek and gum”
2) drug is dissolved slowly over a period of time
What are benefits of sublingual tablets?
Avoids first pass effect. Relatively small amounts of drug needed for full effect.
Film-coated tablets - Will be on the test Biaxin and Depakote are examples.
1) special coating that masks the objectionable odor or taste
2) prevents deterioration due to light and air
What is an ointment?
drugs that have been incorporated into a base
What is a cream?
semisolid emulsions that are less viscous and lighter in texture than ointments, also disappear with rubbing
Sustained, timed-release tablets
1) active ingredient is released at a constant rate for a prolonged period of time
2) “long-acting”, “delayed-release”, “prolonged-action”
What is a gel?
a dispersion of solid drugs in a jelly-like vehicle

agents=
acacia, alginic acid, Carbopols (caromers), gelatin, methylcellulose, tragacanth, xanthan gum
What are film-coated tablets?
coated with thin layer of water-soluable material
What are two advantages of film-coated tablets?
Masks objectionable odor or tastes. Used to protect sensitive drugs from deterioration due to light and air.
Pellets
1) cylinder shaped tablets for implantation just under the skin for continuous drug absorption
What are Sustained, timed-release tablets?
special formulations where active ingredients are released at a constant rate for a prolonged period of time
Capsules - Will be on the test
1) drug is enclosed within a gelatin shell.
2) after 10 to 30 minutes with the stomach, the gelatin capsule dissolves and the drug is released
3) eliminates bad tastes and odors of drugs
What is the typical duration of timed-release tablets?
8-24 hours
Syrups
High concentrations of sugar hinders bacteria growth.
Examples: antibiotics, cough preparations

saturated sucrose solution - < 10% -OH
How long do most gelling agents require to reach maximum viscosity and clarity?
12-24 hrs
What concentrations of gelling agents are typically used?
0.5% - 10%
What are pellets?
small, cylindrically shaped tablets used for subcutaneous, prolonged continuous absorbtion
What restrictions are there in taking enteric-coated tablets?
Must not be chewed, broken, or crushed prior to ingestion. Must not be taken with antacids, as this causes dissolution in the stomach.
What are 3 ways that an intranasal dosage is lost?`
enzymes in the mucosa metabolize certain drugs, normal mucous flow removes drug, and amounts of the drug are swallowed
What is the critical factor with aerosol dosage forms?
particle size
What size particles in aerosol doses hit the back of the mouth and are eventually swallowed instead of inhaled?
20 micron particles
What size particles in aerosol doses reach the bronchioles?
particles from 1-10 microns
What size particles in aerosol doses penetrate to the alveolar sacs?
0.6 micron particles
What is a lotion?
suspensions of solid drugs in an aqueous vehicle
Lozenges
1) “troches or pastilles”
2) meant to dissolve slowly in the mouth to keep the drug in contact with the mouth or throat longer
What is a lozenge?
oval or disc in shape, meant to dissolve slowly to keep drug in contact with the mouth or throat for a prolonged period of time.
What other terms is a lozenge referred to as?
troches or pastilles
Suspensions (Susp)
The medication is insoluble in the liquid. (does not dissolve)
If you hold this liquid up to the light you will see little particles floating around and then settle.
These medications require a shake well sticker because the medication settles at the bottom and the
patient will not get the correct dose if not shaken.
Elixer
sweetened water with alcohol. If the medication is an elixir, it contains alcohol. Not for babies.
What is a common application of pellets?
Commonly used for hormones such as testosterone and estradiol, and as birth control
Repeatablets
- are designed to placed between the cheek and gum to dissolve.
Extended Release Tablets
- are designed to release the medication over a period of time, for example every 12 hours.
Suppositories
A solid medical preparation in a roughly conical or cylindrical shape, designed to be inserted into the rectum or vagina to dissolve.
Caplets
A smooth, coated, oval-shaped medicine tablet intended to be tamper-resistant.
Liquid dosage form
is the liquid form of a dose of a chemical compound used as a drug or medication intended for administration or consumption.