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55 Cards in this Set

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The smallest quantity of physical energy that can be reliably detected by an observer.
Absolute threshold.
In Piaget's theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information.
Accommodation.
The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and feel part of the mainstream culture.
Acculuration.
A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated; it serves to produce an electrical impulse.
Action potential.
The theory that dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain.
Activation-Synthesis Theory.
Hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands and that are involved in emotion and stress.
Adrenal hormones.
A set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involving the basic fear of being away from a safe place or person.
Agoraphobia.
A proble-solving strategy guaranteed to produce a solution even if the user does not know how it works.
Algorithm.
An assertion that the independent variable in a study will have a certain predictable effect on the dependent variable; also called an experimental or research hypothesis.
Alternative Hypothesis.
A brain structure involved to the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initail emotional response to sensory information.
Amygdala.

(uh-MIG-dul-uh)
An eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation.
Anorexia Nervosa.
Drugs primarily used in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety.
Antidepressant drugs.
Drugs used primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
Antipsychotic drugs.
A disorder characterized by antisocial behavior such as lying, stealing, manipulating others, and sometimes violence; and a lack of guilt, shame, and empathy. (Sometimes called psychopathy or sociopathy.)
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD).
The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
Applied Psychology.
Goals framed in terms of desired outcomes or experiences, such as learning to scuba dive.
Approach Goals.
Universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, they reflect the collective unconscious.
Archetypes.

(AR-ki-tipes)
An average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantitits in the set.
Arithmetic Mean.
In Piaget's theory, the process of absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures.
Assimilation.
The theory that people are motivated to explain their own and others' behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or disposition.
Attribution Theory.
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal organs and glands.
Autonomic Nervous System.
The tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances.
Availability Heuristic.
Goals framed in terms of avoiding unpleasant experiences, such as trying not to look foolish in public.
Avoidance Goals.
A neuron's extending fiber that conducts inpulses away from the cell body and transmits them to other neruons.
Axon.
Concepts that have a moderate number of instances and that are easier to acpuire than those having few or many instances.
Basic Concepts.
The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledgy for its own sake rather than for its practical application.
Basic Psychology.
The application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior.
Behavior Modification.
A form of therapy that applies principles and techniques of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating or problematic behaviors.
Behavior Therapy.
An interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality.
Behavioral Genetics.
In behavior therapy, a method of keeping careful data on the frequency and consequences of the behavior to be changed.
Behavioral Records.
An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
Behaviorism.
Visual cues to depth or distance requiring two eyes.
Binocular Cues.
A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
Biological Perspective.
A periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system; may or may not have psychological implications.
Biological Rhythm.
A mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.
Bipolar Disorder.
A disorder characterized by intense but unstable relationships, a fear of abandonment by others, an unrealistic self-image, and emotional volatility.
Borderline Personality Disorder.
The part of the brain at the top of the spinal chord, consisting of the medulla and the pons.
Brain Stem.
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating (bingeing) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging).
Bulimia.
A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
Case Study.
The part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether it will fire.
Cell Body.
The portin of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central Nervous System (CNS).
A brain structure that regulates movement and balance, and that is involved in the learning of certain kinds of simple responses.
Cerebellum.
A collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum; it is largely responsible for higher mental functions.
Cerebral Cortex.
The two halfs of the cerebrum.
Cerebral Hemispheres.
The largest brain structure, consisting of the upper part of the brain; divided into two hemispheres, it is in charge of the most sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.
Crebrum.
The inability to remember events and experiences that occurred during the first two or three years of life.
Childhood (infantile) Amnesia.
Within every cell, rod-shaped structures that carry the genes.
Chromosomes.
A meaningful unit of information; it may be composed of smaller units.
Chunk.
A biological rhythm with a period (from peak to peak or trough to trough) of about 24 hours.
Circadian Rhythm.

(sur-CAY-dee-un)
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicts a similar or related response.
Classical Conditioning.
A humanistic approach to therapy devised by Carl Rogers, which emphasizes the therapist's empathy with the client, the therapist's ability to see the world as the client does, and the use of unconditional positive regard.
Client-Centered (nondirective) therapy.
A snail-shaped, fluid-filled organ in the inner ear, containing the organ of Corti, where the receptors for hearing are located.
Cochlea.

(KOCK-lee-uh)
A measure of correlation that ranges in values from -1.00 to +1.00.
Coefficient of Correlation.
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognition that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance.
The study of cognitive processes in animals.
Cognitive Ethology.