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56 Cards in this Set

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ACCOMODATION
Part of Cognitive Perspectives

Jean Piaget

Accommodation occurs when the information does not fit any existing schema or challenges an old schema.
AGE - GRADED
Every culturs has designated roles or activities based on age, such as naming ceremonies for infants, puberty rituals, and ages at which a person begins formal schooling, gets a driver's license, or retires.
ASSIMILATION
Assimilation means taking in information as it is -- incorporaing that new knowledge into an existing framework (schema).
BEHAVIORISTS
Behaviorists focus entirely on the nurture, or environment, side of the nature-nurture debate and consider developmental as a more continuous process.

Behaviorists focus only on observable behavior, labeling the products of the mind the " black box" that cannot be studied objectively.

In general, behaviorists believe that humanactions are the result of patterns of reinforcement from the environment, rather than any innate abilities.
CASE STUDY
When an individual is observed very closely, given surveys, maybe interviewed.
CHRONOSYSTEM
The pattern of events that unfold over chronological age, including the historical and social context.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Ivan Pavlov

When an Uncontrolled Stimulus stimulates an Uncontrolled Response. One may use a Controlled Stimulus and pair it with an Uncontrolled Stimulus to create a Controlled Response.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Jean Piaget

Children are active participants in their own learning, instead of the passive recievers of information from others.
COHORT DIFFERENCES
Differences that arise from the unique sociocultural factors to which people of different generations are exposed.

i.e. computer literacy
CONFOUNDING VARIABLES
Confounding variables are things that might affect the result in unanticipated ways or that were not controlled for in the design of the experiment.
CONSCIOUS
According to Freud, a level in personality where information is readily available to us.
CONTINUITY
Continuity theorists believe that development is the result of gradual and cumulative changes over the entire lifespa.
CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS
Controlled experiments are done in a laboratory setting where much greater control over extraneous variables can take place.
CORRELATIONAL
Correlational means that the variables are related, but you cannot say whether one caused the other.
CROSS SECTIONAL
Groups that can be studied at only one point in time.
DATA ANALYSIS
Data analysis refers to statistical procedures that are done to make sense odf the findings of a study.
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Defense Mechanisms is the way our ego defends us from daily assaults according to Freud.
DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Dependent variables are the outcome measures of interest, such as the score on the math test after having special instruciton.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
aka CORRELATIONAL

which means the variables are related but you cannot say which one caused the other.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
Includes Means, Medians, Modes, Frequencies and Simple Correlations.
DEVELOPMENT
The term development refers to the changes that occur over time, across the entire life span. It includes all aspects of human living, from physical growth and maturation, to cognitive changes, to our personality and social and emotional transitions.
DICONTINUITY
Discontinuity theorists believe that development occurs in discrete, identifiable stages.
EGO
According to Freud, the ego is centered on the reality principle and starts to develop in infancy.

The ego balances the demands of the id and the restrictions of the supereo in order to meet the realities of the situation.
ETHOLOGY
Ethology refers to the idea that behavior is largely influenced by biological factors, particularly behaviors that have developed over time.
EXOSYSTEM
Bronfenbrenner examines the world that is not quite as close to the individual: the extended family, mass media, social welfare agencies, and government policies.
FIELD EXPERIMENT
In a field experiment, the observation takes place in a natural setting, but there is some manipulation or control over variables, such as giving some children special math instruction and others the usual math instruction, then observing their scores on a math test. There is no control over the many possible variables.
HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS
Albert Maslow proposed that physical needs such as hunger and thirst, and emotional needs like feeling safe and secure must first be met before the child is ready for academic/cognitive tasks.
HISTORY GRADED
Each generation (age cohort) is influenced by the historical events that occur in their lifetime, such as growing up during the Great Depression, going to school in the computer era
HUMANISTIC THEORIES
stress that people can take control over their own behavior and are not merely pawns of reinforcement or driven by genetic factors.

They tend to focus on the ways in which humans achieve some higher level of existence.
HYPOTHESIS
A research question based on some theoretical perspective.
ID
centered on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain and is present at birth.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated by the experimenter, such as the type of math instruction.
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
Inferential Statistics are used to determine if there is a significant difference between two or more scores, or to determine if some score could occur just by chance.
INFORMED CONSENT
Consent means saying yes or no to a participation.

Informed Consent means completely understanding what one is consenting to.
LONGITUDINAL
Studying a certain group at many different times.
MACROSYSTEM
According to Bronfenbrenner,this is the last circle and that it consists of the dominant ideology (attitudes and beliefs of a culture reflected in its educational, legal, religious, and governing body practices).
MESOSYSTEM
Looks at how the structures in the microsystem instersect and interact with each other.
MICROSYSTEM
The structures that impinge on the individual every day, such as family, school, peers, and close neighbors.
MORAL REASONING
Moral Reasoning refers to the way that people use cognitive processes to solve ethical dilemmas.
MULTIDIMENSIONAL
Physical
Cognitive
Emotional
Personality
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
Naturalistic Observation involve watching people in their natural settings, such as at a daycare center, a school, or a workplace, and recording information about how people behave.
NON- NORMATIVE
There are many events that are not univeral or even widespread, but can have significant influence on a person's development.
OPERANT CONDITIONING
B.F. Skinner proposed Operant Conditioning.

People are reinforced for certain behaviors. Behaviors that result in pleasurable outcomes (positive or negative reinforcement) are likely to be repeated whereas behaviors that result in unpleasant outcomes (punishment, penalty) or no reinforcemnet (extinction) are not likely to be repeated.
PHYSICAL GROWTH
Physical growth includes the development of human organs in the prenatal period, the growth in size and changes in functioning that occur in childhood and adolescence, and then the declines and alterations in functioning that occur iwth more advanced aging.
PRECONSCIOUS
Is the intermediary between the unconscious and conscious minds. We are not usually aware of it, but it pops out in dreams, jokes, slips of tongue.
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES
Psychodynamic theories originated with Sigmund Freud, and they focus on the ide that we have an "unconscious" mind that contains emotionally charged memories of the early life experiences.
SAMPLE
A respresentation of a population.
SCHEMA
Framework
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The scientific method formulating a hypothesis ( a research question based on some theoretical perspective), then testing the hypothesis, drawing conclusions, and making the findings available to others.
SELF ACTUALIZED
A person who has all of his/her needs met can become self-actualized.

A self-actualized person is one who is spontaneous, creative, good at solving problems, and self-directed, and who has good social relationships but also likes his/her privacy.
SELF-EFFICACY
The study of how people come to believe that they are competent or likely to succeed at different kinds of tasks.
SEQUENTIAL DESIGN
The most complicated design includes a combination of cross sectional and longitudinal designs and is called sequential design.
SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Encompasses temperament (our style of responding to new situations), personality (the deeply ingrained habits we are born with or acquire). and socialization into a particular cultural group.
SUPEREGO
Is the conscience; it tells the person what s/he shouldor should not do.
UNCONSCIOUS
Material that has been repressed because it is sexually charged or includes painful memories It is only available through hypnosis.

According to Freud, material in the unconscious mind influences our behavior without our being aware of it.
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
There are some tasks that are too difficult for childrent to achieve alone, but they can be achieved with the direct assistance of an adult or older peer.

The lower level of the zone encompasses what the child can do alone, and the upper level what the child can do with assistance.