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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is psychology?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes
What does science mean?
You rely on systematic procedures for collecting data, analyzing data, and recording data
What is anecdotal information?
A personal experience or one example of an event (ie: TV violence making one kid aggressive, not generalized)
What is behavior?
Observable actions
What are two examples of behavior?
1. Physiological reactions to your environment (sweating)
2. Speech
What are mental processes?
Thinking
What are two examples of mental processes?
1. Perceptions, influenced by emotional experiences, family, peers, etc.
2. Feelings/emotions
What is a system whereby what we have learned is encoded, stored, and retrieved at a later point in time?
Memory
What is memory?
A system whereby what we have learned is encoded, stored, and retrieved at a later point in time
What is anecdotal information?
A personal experience or one example of an event
What are the three processes of memory?
Encoding
Storing
Retrieving
Memory is the system of retaining information using the processes ____, ____, and ____.
Encoding, storing, and retrieving
What is encoding?
The process whereby we select information to be retained
What is the process whereby we select information to be retained?
Encoding
What are the two types of encoding?
Automatic and effortful
What is encoding without effort?
Automatic encoding
What is automatic encoding?
Encoding without effort
What are three things that are automatically encoded?
Location
Frequency (how often you did something)
Timing of events (what you did yesterday)
How are location, frequency, and timing of events encoded?
Through automatic encoding
What is encoding with effort?
Effortful encoding
What are the 7 strategies for effortful encoding?
Rehearsal
Encoding for Meaning
Encoding for Visual Imagery
Encoding for Meaning & Visual Imagery
Mnemonic Devices
Organization
Elaboration
What are the three principles of rehearsal?
The more time spent learning, the more that will be remembered
Serial Position Effect: Remember the beginning & end, forget the middle
Spacing effect: When we space out our study time, we are more likely to remember info
Why should you encode for meaning?
You remember things you know the meaning of
What is even stronger than encoding for just plain meaning?
Encoding for personal meaning, involving emotion
What are two types of organization?
Chunking and hierarchies
What is chunking?
Placing relevant info together; can remember 7 pieces of information, + or - 2
What is hierarchies?
The use of outlines
What is the use of outlines?
Hierarchies
What is placing relevant information together?
Chunking
How many pieces of info can you remember with chunking?
7 plus or minus 2
What is integrating new info with things we already know?
Elaboration
What is elaboration?
Integrating new info with things we already know?
What is the maintaining of information until needed at a later time?
Storing
What is storing?
The maintaining of information until needed at a later time
How many memory stores/components are there?
3
What are the three memory stores?
Sensory memory, Short Term or Working memory, and Long Term memory
What does the cycle start with?
External/environmental stimuli through senses
Where do the stimuli enter?
The sensory memory
What are the three characteristics of the sensory memory?
1. Raw, unprocessed information
2. Very brief duration
3. Large capacity
What type of information is in the sensory memory?
Raw and unprocessed
What type of duration does the sensory memory have?
Very brief
What types of memory are within sensory memory?
Iconic and echoic
What is iconic memory?
Visual information
How long do we have a perfect visual representation of what we have seen?
1/2 second or less
What is echoic memory?
Auditory information
How long does echoic memory last?
2-4 seconds
What type of capacity does sensory memory have?
Large
How many pieces of info can you have in sensory memory at any 1 time?
25 pieces
What happens to information after it has been in sensory memory?
It is either forgotten or transferred into short-term memory
What is another name for short-term memory?
Working memory
What are the three characteristics of short-term memory?
1. Consciously processed
2. Duration of 30 seconds
3. 7 +/-2 Magic Number
How is information processed in short-term memory?
Consciously
What is the duration of short-term memory?
30 seconds
What is the magic number for the amount of information you can have in short-term memory?
7 plus or minus 2
What happens to information after it has been in short-term memory?
It is either forgotten or transferred to long-term memory
What are the three characteristics of long-term memory?
1. LTM organizes and categorizes information
2. Permanent duration
3. Average adult holds quintrillion pieces of info
Unlimited capacity
What does LTM do to information?
Organize and categorize information
What type of duration does LTM have?
Permanent duration
The average adult holds how many pieces of info in LTM?
A quintrillion pieces of info
What type of capacity does LTM have?
Unlimited capacity
How many types of long-term memory are there?
2
What are the two types of long-term memory?
Explicit and implicit
What is the type of LTM memory in which info requires conscious recall?
Explicit (declarative)
What are the two types of explicit memory?
Semantic and episodic
What is general knowledge and information?
Semantic
What is your own personal memories and experiences?
Episodic
What is the type of LTM memory that is without conscious recall?
Implicit
What are the two types of implicit memory?
Procedural and classically conditioned information
How is classically conditioned information acquired?
Through association
What is retrieval?
The bringing forth of information that has been previously stored
What is the bringing forth of info that has previously been stored?
Retrieval
What are the two types of retrieval?
Recall and recognition
Which type of retrieval is like an essay question?
Recall
What type of retrieval is like a multiple choice question?
Recognition
Which type of retrieval requires you to reconstruct information?
Recall
What type of retrieval requires you to identify info that has been stored?
Recognition
What are stimuli required to retrieve info?
Retrieval cues
What are retrieval cues?
Stimuli required to retrieve info
What are examples of retrieval cues?
Words, pictures, scents, touch, sounds
What are three specific types of retrieval cues?
Context cues, state-dependent cues, and mood congruent cues
What are cues that involve location or where something happened?
Context cues
What are context cues?
Cues that involve location or where something happened
What are state dependent cues?
When you remember best if you're in the same mood when retrieving as you were when you learned (drunk)
What is it called when you remember best if you're in the same mood when retrieving as you were when you learned?
State dependent cues
What is the tendency to retrieve info best if it reflects your mood?
Mood congruent cues
What are mood congruent cues?
The tendency to retrieve info best if it reflects your mood
What are the 6 types of forgetting?
Pseudoforgetting, faulty retrieval cues, decay theory, interference theory, motivated forgetting, repression
What is "forgetting" because you never encoded information into long-term memory?
Pseudoforgetting
What is pseudoforgetting?
Forgetting because you never encoded information into long-term memory
What is a mismatch between how you remembered and cues given to remember?
Faulty retrieval cues
What are faulty retrieval cues?
Mismatch between how you remember and the cues given to remember
What is the decay theory?
Info that you don't use, you lose
What is "info that you don't use, you lose"?
Decay theory
What is described as so much competition between info that you forget?
Interference theory
What is the interference theory?
So much competition between info that you forget
What are the two types of interference?
Retroactive and proactive
What is new interfering with remembering old?
Retroactive interference
What is old interfering with remembering new?
Proactive interference
What is motivated forgetting?
Forgetting things you just don't want to remember (to make dentist appt)
What is forgetting things you just don't want to remember?
Motivated forgetting
What is a type of forgetting described by Freud?
Repression
What is repression?
Placing of unwanted or threatening thoughts, feelings, perceptions, into your unconscious
What is the placing of unwanted or threatening thoughts, feelings, perceptions, into your unconscious?
Repression