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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience.
LEARNING
A behavior that is elicited automatically by an environmental stimulus.
REFLEX
Something in the environment that elicits a response.
STIMULUS
The decreasing strength of a response after repeated presentations of the stimulus.
HABITUATION
Conditions under which one thought becomes connected, or associated, with another.
LAWS OF ASSOCIATION
Proposes that 2 events will be connected in the mind if they're experienced close together in time.
LAW OF CONTIGUITY
The first type of learning to be studied systematically.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
A reflex that occurs naturally, without prior learning.
UNCONDITIONED REFLEX
The stimulus that produces the response in an unconditioned reflex.
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
A response that does not have to be learned.
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE
A stimulus that through learning, has come to evoke a conditioned response.
CONDITIONED RESPONSE
A learned aversion to a taste associated with an unpleasant feeling.
CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION
When a formerly neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional response.
CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSE
Irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
PHOBIAS
Once an organism has learned to associate a CS with a UCS, it may respond to stimuli that resemble the CS with a similar response.
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
The learned tendency to respond to a restricted range of stimuli or only the stimulus used during
STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION
The process by which a CR is weakened by the presentation of the CS without the UCS.
EXTINCTION
The reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response.
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY
The time between presentation of the CS and the UCS.
INTERSTIMULUS INTERVAL
The evolved tendency of some associations to be learned more readily than others.
PREPARED LEARNING
The tendency of a group of neurons to fire more readily after consistent stimulation from other neurons.
LONG TERM POTENTIATION
Learning to operate on the environment to produce a consequence.
OPERANT CONDITIONING
Behaviors that are spontaneously produced rather than elicited by the environment.
OPERANTS
Increases the probability that a response will occur.
REINFORCEMENT
Diminishes the likelihood that a response will occur.
PUNISHMENT
Process whereby presentation of a stimulus after a behavior makes the behavior more likely to occur again.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
Process whereby termination of an aversive stimulus make a behavior more likely to occur.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
stored memories of muscle movements
Motoric Representations
store information in a sensory mode (dog barking or image of a city skyline)
Sensory Representations
information stored in words
Verbal Representations
immediate memory for information momentarily held in consciousness (telephone number)
Primary Memory
the vast store of information that is unconscious except when called back into primary memory
Seconday Memory
hold information about a perceived stimulus for a fraction of a secod after the stimulus disappears
Sensory Registers
momentary memory for visual information
Iconic Storage
momentary memory for auditory information
Echoic Storage
a memory store that holds a small amount of information in consciousness for roughly 20-30 seconds; it has limited capacity
Short-term Memory
repeating the information over andover in your mind
Rehearsal
metal repetition in order to maintain information in short-term memory
Maintenance Rehearsal
actively thinking about the information while rehearsing
Elaborative Rehearsal
representations of facts, images, thoughts, feelings, skills, and experiences may reside for as long as a lifetime
Long-term Memory
recovering information from long-term memory
Retrieval
a tendency to remember information toward the beginnning and the end of a list rather than the middle
Serial Position Effect
discrete but interdependent processing units responsible for different kinds of remembering
Modules
the temporary storage and processing of information that can be used to solve problems to repsond to environmental demands, or to achieve goals
Working Memory
a memory technique that uses knowledge stored in LTM to group information in larger units than single words or digits
Chunking
memory for facts and events
Declarative Memory
"how to" knowledge of procedures or skills (skill or habit memory)
Procedural Memory
general world knowledge or facts
Semantic Memory
memories of particular events
Episodic Memory
conscious recollection
Explicit Memory
memory that's expressed in behavior but does not require conscious recollection
Implicit Memory
the spontaneous conscious recollection of information from long-term memory
Recall
the person knows the information is "in there" but is not quite able to retrieve it
Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
the explicit sense or recollection that something currently perceived has been previously encountered or learned
Recognition
prior exposure to a stimulus facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information
Priming Effects
memory as it occurs in everyday life
Everyday as it occurs in everyday life
memory for things from the past
Retrospective Memory
memory for things that need to be done in the future
Prospective Memory
manipulating mental representations for a purpose
Thinking
visual representations
Mental images
representations that describe, explain, or predict they way things work
Mental models
groupings based on common properties
Categories
mental representation of a category
Concept
process of identifying an object as an instance of a category; recogizing similarities and dissimilarities
Categorization
qualities that are essential, or necessarily present, in order to classify the object as a member of a category
Defining Features
concepts that have properties clearly setting them apart from other concepts
Well-defined concepts
an abstraction across many instances of a category
Prototype
broadest, most inclusve level of categorization; objects share common attributes that are distinctive of the concept
Basic level of categorization
below basic level in which more specific attributes are shared by members of category
Subordinate level of categorization
process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and beliefs
Reasoning
reasoning from specific observations to more general propostitions
Inductive reasoning
logical reasoning that draws a conclusion from a set of assumptions and premises
Deductive reasoning
two premises that lead to a logical conlusion
Syllogism
the process by which people understand a novel situation in terms of a familiar one
Analogical reasoning
the process of transforming one situatio into another to meet a goal
Problem solving
the initial state, goal state, and operators are easily determined
Well-defined problems
unsatisfactory state
Initial state
state in which the problem is resolved
Goal state
both the information need to solve the problem and the criteria for determining when the goal has been met are vague
Ill-defined problems
minigoals on the way to achieving a broader goal
Subgoals
techniques that serve as guides for solving a problem
Problem-solving strategies
systematic procedures that inevitably produce a solution
Algorithms
imagining the steps involved in solving a problem mentally before actually undertaking them
Mental stimulation
the tendency for people to ignore other possible functions of an object when they have a fixed function in mind
Functional fixedness
the tendency for people to search for confirmation of what they already believe
Confirmation bias
the process by which an individual weighs the pros and cons of different alternatives in order to make a choice
Decision making
combined measure of the importance of an attribute and the extent to which a given option satissfies it
Weighted utility value
combined judgment of the weighted utility and the expected probability of obtaining that outcome
Expected utility
cognition that involves conscious manipulation of representations
Explicit cognition
cognitive shortcuts for selecting among alternatives without carefully considering each one
Heuristics
people categorize by matching the similarity of an object to a prototype but ignore information about its probability of occurring
Representativeness Heuristic
people infer the frequency of something on the basis of how readily it comes to mind
Availability Heuristic
people are rational within the bounds imposed by their environment, goals, and abilities
Bounded rationality
cognition outside of awareness
Implicit cognition
asserts that most cognitive processes occur simultaneously through the action of multiple activated networks
Connectionism (PDP)
the tendency to settle on a cognitive solution that satisfies as many constraints as possible in order to achieve the best fit to data
Constraint satisfaction
plays central role in working memory and explicit manipulations of representation
Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
helps people use their emotional reactions to guide decision making and behavior
Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
the system of symbols, sounds, meanings, and rules for their combination that constitutes the primary mode of communication among humans
Language
idea that language shapes thoughts
Whorfian hyothesis of linguistic relativity
smallest units of sound that constitute speech
Phonemes
smallest units of meaning in laguage
Morphemes
groups of words that act as a unit can convey meaning
Phrases
organized sequence of words that expires a thought or intention
Sentences
rules that govern the placement of words and phrases in a sentence
Syntax
a system for generating acceptable language utterances and identifying unacceptable ones
Grammar
the rules that govern the meanings of morphemes, words, phrases and sentences
Semantics
the way language is used and understood in everyday life
Pragmatics
the way people ordinarily, speak, hear, read and write in interconnected sentences
Discourse
a variety of signals: body language, gestures, touch, physical distance, facial expressions, and nonverbal vocalizations
Nonverbal communication