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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of psychology?
Science of the behavior and mental processes
What do we turn to when we try to make sense of the world around us?
Folk wisdom
Who was deceived by the reports of fairies?
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
What is bias?
Beliefs that interfere with objectivity
What law requires us to adopt the simplest explanation that requires the fewest assumptions of a
phenomena?
Law of parsimony
What is the cornerstone of psychology?
critical thinking
What should you do BEFORE accepting a statement or claim?
Consider the possibility of personal bias
Other than considering bias, what should one also consider before accepting a claim?
Evaluation of the person's authority making the claim
Besides bias and evaluation of authority, what else may one consider?
If the claim is based one scientific observation
What conveys info about the middle of a distribution, or collection of numbers?
Average
What are findings that exceed chance occurence called?
statistically significant
What has to happen before a finding is found statistically significant?
A statistical test must be performed
What is a correlation
association between two variables
Does the fact that two events are correlated prove that one event caused the other?
No, but knowing them helps to make predictions.
Give the four guide lines that can be helpful to evaluate a claim.
1. What is it, and who is making it?
2.Based on scientific observations?
3.What do stats reveal?
4. Are there plausible alternative explanations for the statement or claim?
What do psychologists use?
scientific method
What is when info is used to develop explainations of different things observed?
Theory
What are predictions about future behaviors?
Hypotheses
What is an indepth analysis of a person and who made it popular?
case study-Sigmeud Freud
What is a major advantage of the case study?
Allows researchers to gather a lot of info
What is a major disadvantage of the case study?
What is learned about one person may not apply to other people
What is the goal of the case study?
Info from one person is used to understand the behavior of others
What is when a psychologist observes behaviors as they occur, without intervention or alteration?
naturalistic observation
What are observations that interfere with behavior being studied referred to?
reactive
A type of research where Knowing certain info that predicts the future is called what?
correlational research
What is info from a scatter plot summarized into a single number called and symoblized by?
correlation coefficient or r
What is the correlation coefficient's range?
-1.00 to +1.00
What does the number of the correlation coefficient show?
The strength of the correlation. The higher the more associated.
What does the sign of the correlation coeff tell?
Tells the direction of the correlation.
What is a + correlation?
The values of one variable increase..head in the same direction.
What does a - correlation mean?
The values of the two variables travel in opposite directions.
How can you have a better prediction with correlations?
Make it larger
Why are surveys used?
Gather large amounts of info
What is a representative sample?
Sample of people that represents the entire population
What can result in different views of the true state of affairs in a survey?
-nature of the survey
-way the project is conducted
What method allows researchers to manipulate certain variables or factor to determine how they affect other variables?
experimental method
What is a variable manipulated by a researcher to determine its effects on a dependent variable?
independent variable
What is a variable that shows the outcome of an experiment by revealing the effects of an independent variable?
dependent variable
What is the careful and precise definition that allows other researchers to repeat an experiment?
operational definition
What is the group in an experiment that receives the effect of the independent variable being manipulated?
experimental group
What is the comparison group in an experiment that does not receive the effect of the independent variable being manipulated?
The control group
In the BOBO doll study, who were the independent or dependent variables?
IND-observing an aggressive model or unagressive model
DEP-number of blows on the doll
Variables other than the independent variable, that can influence the outcome of an experiment.
extraneous variable
Give an example of an extraneous variable
The group being boys assigned the the aggressive model
Assignment of experimental participants of two or more groups on the basis of choice.
random assignment
What are procedures used ti summarize a set of numbers so that you can understand and talk about them more intelligibly? ex- grade on a test
descriptive statistics
What are procedures used to analyze data after an experiment is conducted to determine if an independent variable had any significant effect?
inferential stats
What are some things included in research ethics?
confidentiality,protection from harm,voluntary participation,deception and intimidation
What is the document that indicates that the participant knows the nature of the research and agreed to do?
informed consent
What must happen after a study that involves deception?
a debriefing-
Where can the origins of psychology be traced and what year?
University of Leipzig in Germany 1879
Who is credited with establishing the first psychology lab?
Wundt
What is the earliest approach in modern psychology with goal to analyze the basic elements of conscious experience?
structuralism-Wundt
What is the structural psychologists major method in which participants reported the contents of their conscious experience? Who did this?
introspection-Titchener
What is the study of higher mental processes, such as thinking,knowing,and deciding?
cognitive psychology
What is the approach to psychology that focuses on the purposes of conciousness?
functionalism-W. James
What is the approach to psychology that most noted for emphasizing that our perception of a whole is different from our perception of the individual stimuli?
Gestalt
Who described the visual illusion of apparent motion?
Wertheimer
What is the perspective that focuses on observable behavior and emphasizes the learned nature of behavior?
behavioral perspective
Who observed how organisms learn to associate events in their environments?
Ivan Pavlov
Who believed that psychology should be concerned not with the mind or conciousness but solely with observable behaviors?
Watson
Who is known as the greatest contemporary psychologist?
Skinner
Who thought that behavior changes resulted of its consequences?
Skinner
What view taken by Freud and followers suggested that normal and adnormal behaviors are determined primarily by unconscious forces?
psychodynamic perspective-FREUD
What treatment approach attempts to bring unconcious causes of distress to the concious level? Who?
psychoanaltyic therapy-FREUD
What is the approach to psychology that emphasized free will and individual's control of their own behavior?
humanistic perspective
Who is associated with the humanistic perspective?
Maslow and Rogers
What is the view of behaviors and mental processes that can be understood by studying the underlying physiology?
physiological perspective
What is the interest in the role of physiological structure or behavior plays in helping an organism adapt to its environment?
evolutionary perspective
Who discovered brain receptors for the neurotransmitters called endorphins and enkephalin?
Pert
What is the view that focuses on the study of how thought occurs, how our memories work, and how info is organized and stored?
cognitive perspective
Who was the first woman to be elected to president of the American Psychological ASsoc?
Calkins
Who was the researcher whom was declined a regular position because she was married?
Ladd-Franklin
Who was the first African American woman to receive a doctoral degree in educational psychology?
Prosser
Who was the first African American to receive a PHD in psyc?
Sumner
Who was the first AA to serve as president of APA?
Clark
What is the view that psychologists should be concerned with the interactions among human behavior, the pop and environ?
enviro,pop,and conservation perspective
What is an eclectic approach to psychology?
View that combines several different approaches
What is the specialty of psychology that involvves the diagnosis and treatment of psyco disorders?
clinical psych
Md with specialized training in the med treatment of mental and emotional disorders
psychiatrist
Specialty of psych that deals with less serious problems than those treated by clinical psychologists
counseling psychology
One who conducts and reports results of eperiments
research psychologist
The view that other cultures are an extension of one's own
ethnocentrism
What is a branch of psyology that seeks to determine if results are universal and can be applied to other cultures?
cross cultural psychology
What is physiological mechanisms of learning, behavior and memory called?
biopsychology or neuropsycholohy
What are theoretical and practical aspects of psychological testing and measurement?
psychometrics
What is a psychologist whose specialty encompasses diagnosing and treating learning disabilities and providing consultation on other problems of school age children?
school psychologist
What is a psychologist who applies psychology to problems of businesses and other organizations?
industrial/organizational psychologist
What is a specialty of psychology that studies consumers and choices they make?
consumer psychology
What is the subfield of psychology that is concerned with how psychological and social variables affect health and illness?
health psychology
What is a psychologist that applies psychology and law to legal proceedings?
forensic psychologist
What is a psychologist that provides services to athletes and coaches based on psychological principles?
sport psychologist
What is a psychologist trained in the diagnosis and rehab of brain disorders?
neuropsychologist
Who said "Those Who Forget History are Doomed to Repeat It?"
Santayana
What holds society together?
obedience
What kind of psychologist was Milgram?
social psychologist
Who had the idea of conformity?
Solomon Asch
How was behavior effected in Solomon Asch's conformity?
-behavior was influenced by peers
Name the three people involved in the Milgram experiment.
1-authority
2-stooge
3-the subject
What is a stooge?
A confederate or someone that is IN on the experiment.
What did psych professionals predict about people pulling the levers?
less than 1% would do it
What is the only time that people think they are not in control of themselves?
in times of physical threat or force
What was the conflict people were faced with during Milgram's experiment?
hurting someone versus disobedience
How many people went all of the way when the stooge was in a separate room?
65% went beyond to 450 volts
When did the stooge issue no response?
at 300 volts
When the stooge added screaming during Milgram's experiment, how many people went on to 450 volts?
62,5% did
When Milgram added proximity during his experiment, how many people went on to 450 volts?
40%
How many people went on to 450 volts with a touch proximity?
30%
Give 9 ways that teachers reduced the strain they were under during Milgram's experiment.
Avoidance,denial,subterfuge,devalue the victim,physical onversions,agentic state,tuning,redefining the situation,loss of responsibility.
What is the agentic state?
When one sees themselves as an agent of someone else.
During the RN-MD relationship study, what happened?
A fake doctor called to deliver orders to give overdoses of astroten. They knew that the doctor was telling them that they were overdoses- and still went on their way to administer it. 20 were stopped on their way.
What is My Lai?
19 year old ordered to kill babies-obedience to authority
What is a PH D?
a doctorate of philosophy in...
Who used the method of introspection?
Wundt
What was William Wundt's goal?
to analyze contents of consciousness
What was Watson's definition of psychology?
The study of observable and overt behavior
What is overt behavior?
Observable behavior-pacing,body language,etc.
What is covert behavior?
thinking, unobservable behavior
What are conditional emotional reactions?
phobias
What was the experiment of Little Albert?
Steel bar and hammer make noise at sight of white rat.-scared Albert- possible learned phobia-scared of animals
Who did the study of human sexual behavior by hooking up individuals during sex?
Masterson and Johnson
Who was the first person to study human sexual behavior and how did they do it?
Watson-had sex with Rosalie Rayner and hooked up to machines
To be a clinical psychologist- what do you have to have?
phD or PsyD
How are clinical psychologists similar to psychiatrists?
Can diagnose and treat mental disorders
How are psychiatrists and clinical psychologists differnet?
A psychiatrist is a medical doctor and does its residency in a psych hospital
What type of drug has been administered to a schizophrenic patient who has a shuffle and gum rattling?
Thorazine
What is the type of medication that treats everything and has sexual side effects?
prozac
What is a medicine administered to people with anxiety that has drowsy side effects?
Valium
What two things can a psychiatrist do that a psychologist cannot?
administer drug treatments and perform psychosurgery
What is a frontal lobotomy?
Cutting connections between front lobe and emotional parts of the brain
What is ECT used for?
depression
What is the consolidation hypothesis?
Biological process that lays down a memory interruption so there is no remembrance
Why was EXT administered?
for deep depression or suicidal patients for fast results
What does a social psychologist do?
studies group behaviors
Name some things that a social psychologist may be interested in.
obedience,conformity,aggression,interpersonal attraction
What is bystander apathy?
Tendency of people in groups to not help someone who is in trouble
What does a industrial or organizational psychologist do?
designs equipment,tests for employment,
What kinds of things may a health psychologist be interested in?
smoking reduction,weight control,hostility and heart disease
Give some examples of a Type A person.
impatience,quick,competitive
What reduces type A behavior?
humor
What might a forensic psychologist be interested in?
eval of prisoners,jury selection, eval witnesses on eyewitness testimonies
What are implanted memories?
Creation of things that never happened in memories
WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH?
TO AVOID BIAS
WHAT DID THE EXAMPLE OF DOYLE AND HOUDINI ILLUSTRATE?
THE LAW OF PARSIMONY- HOUDINI EITHER DID MAGIC OR A TRICK- SWALLOWED THE KEY TO THE HANDCUFFS
WHAT IS THE RESEARCH METHOD WHEN A BEHAVIOR IS OBSERVED WITHOUT INTERVENTION?
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
WHAT DID THE TRIP TO MCDONALDS AND SEAT BELT EXPERIMENTS ILLUSTRATE?
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
WHAT IS THE RESEARCH METHOD THAT INVOLVES AN IN DEPTH ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL OR ANIMAL?
CASE STUDY
WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF TED BUNDY AND LITTLE ALBERT ILLUSTRATING?
CASE STUDIES
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH CASE STUDIES?
THEY MAY NOT GENERALIZE
WHAT IS THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT?
R
WHAT IS A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE?
EVERY INDIVIDUAL HAS AN EQUAL CHANCE OF BEING IN THE SAMPLE STUDIED
WHO DID THE STUDY ON FLASH BULB MEMORY?
KULIK AND BROWN
WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE AND DESCRIPTION OF FLASH BULB MEMORY?
JFK DEATH 911 - REMEMBER A SUDDEN PLACE AND TIME WHEN YOU HEARD SOMETHING WAS OCCURING
WHAT IS THE ONLY RESEARCH METHOD THAT ADDRESSES CAUSE AND EFFECT?
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
WHICH VARIABLE LEADS TO THE OTHER IN THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD?
IV LEADS TO DV
WHICH VARIABLE IS CHANGED AND MANIPULATED?
THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
WHICH VARIABLE IS THE OUTCOME OF THE EXPERIMENT?
THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE
SORT THESE WORDS INTO IVS AND DVS. WEIGHT, DIET, EXERCISE, COMMUTE TIME, HEART DISEASE, BLOOD PRESSURE
IV-DIET EXERCISE COMMUTE TIME
DV-WEIGHT,HEART DISEASE,BP
WHAT IS THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD A PART OF?
THE CNS
WHAT DOES THE SOMATIC PNS COVER FOR?
SENSES AND MOTOR MOVEMENTS
WHAT DOES THE AUTONOMIC PNS COVER FOR?
AUTO RESPONSE
WHAT SYSTEM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR FIGHT OR FLIGHT?
SYMPATHETIC
WHAT IS IT WHEN SOMEONE CALLS UPON THE SYMPATHETIC RESPONSE TOO OFTEN AND HAS THE POSSIBILITY OF DEATH?
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDER
WHAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR REST AND RELAXATION?
THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
WHO THOUGHT THE BRAIN WAS LIKE A MUSCLE?
FRANZ GALL
WHAT IS PHRENOLOGY?
BUMPS ON THE HEAD THAT INDICATED BRAIN DAMAGE ON CERTAIN PARTS OF THE BRAIN
WHAT IS IT THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN PARTS OF THE BRAIN THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR CERTAIN FUNCTIONS?
LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION
WHAT WAS DISCOVERED DURING THE FRANCO PRUSSION WAR?
THE MOTOR STRIP,CONTRALATERALIZATION,
WHAT WAS WRONG WITH TAN IN HIS CASE?
BROCA'S AREA WAS DAMAGED
WHAT IS THE BROCA'S AREA AND WERNICKE'S AREAS KNOWN FOR?
BROCA- RESPONSIBLE FOR BEING ABLE TO COMMUNICATE THROUGH TALKING

WERNICKE- UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE
WHAT IS THE DISEASE THAT MEANS DIFFICULTY WITH LANGUAGE?
APHASIA
WHO DISCOVERED BROCA'S AREA?
BROCA
WHAT MECHANISM MEASURES BRAIN ELECTRICITY?
EEG
WHAT IS THE EXAMPLE USED TO DESCRIBE WHAT IS GOING ON INSIDE OF THE HEAD UNDER SUPERVISION OF EEG?
FOOTBALL STADIUM
WHAT ARE THE BRAIN WAVES THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR RELAXED,CALM,LUCID AND NOT THINKING STATE?
ALPHA WAVES
WHAT IS THE WAVELENGTH OF ALPHA WAVES?
9-13 HZ
WHAT BRAIN WAVES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR DEEP RELAXATION AND MEDITATION WITH MENTAL IMAGERY?
THETA
WHAT IS THE WAVELENGTH OF THETA WAVES?
4-8 HZ
WHAT BRAIN WAVES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ACTIVELY PROCESSING INFORMATION,AWAKENESS,AND NORMAL ALERT CONCIOUSNESS?
BETA WAVES
WHAT IS THE FREQUENCY OF BETA WAVES"?
14-30 HZ
WHAT IS THE WAVES RESPONSIBLE FOR DEEP, DREAMLESS SLEEP?
DELTA WAVES
WHAT IS THE FREQ OF DELTA WAVES?
1-3 HZ
WHAT KIND OF WAVES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP WALKING?
DELTA WAVES
WHAT OCCURED TO CHILDREN WHEN GIVEN MEDS FOR SLEEPWALKING?
MADE SLOW WAVE SLEEP AND STOPPED GROWTH HORMONES
WHAT WAS KAREN EXPERIENCING WHEN SHE AWOKE SCREAMING, SCRATCHING, STANDING, AND SWEATY?
NIGHT TERRORS
HOW MUCH DOES THE BRAIN WEIGH?
3 POUNDS
WHAT ARE CONVULTIONS OF THE BRAIN?
RIDGES AND VALLEYS OF THE BRAIN
WHAT IS THE CEREBRUM SEPARATED INTO/
L AND R HEMISPHERES
WHAT IS THE BAND OF TISSUE THAT CONNECTS THE L AND R HEMISPHERES THAT LOOKS LIKE A BANANA?
CORPUS CALLOSUM
WHAT RELAYS INFO BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE L AND R BRAIN?
CORPUS CALLOSUM
WHAT THREE PARTS OF THE BRAIN PARTICIPATE IN MOTOR MOVEMENT?
CEREBELLUM,FRONTAL LOBE, BASAL GANGLIA
WHAT EFFECT DOES ALCOHOL HAVE ON THE CEREBELLUM?
AFFECTS MOTOR MOVEMENT BY DESTROYING CELLS
WHAT LOBE OF THE BRAIN CONTAINS BROCAS AREA AND THE MOTOR STRIP?
FRONTAL LOBE
WHAT LOBE CONTAINS THE SOMATOSENSORY STRIP?
PARIETAL LOBE
WHAT LOBE CONTAINS WEINKE'S AREA?
TEMPORAL LOBE
WHAT LOBE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR VISUAL PROCESSING?
OCCIPITAL
WHAT LOBE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING?
FRONTAL
WHAT LOBE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR REGISTERING WHAT IS GOING ON IN THE BODY AND SENSING?
PARIETAL
WHAT LOBE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HEARING, LANGUAGE, AND UNDERSTANDING?
TEMPORAL
WHAT PART OF THE BRAIN HAS ALL SENSORY INFO GO THROUGH IT EXCEPT FOR SMELL?
THALAMUS
WHAT BRAIN PART IS THE PARASYMPATHETIC FIGHT,FLIGHT,FEEDING,AND FORNICATING?
HYPOTHALAMUS
WHAT BRAIN PART IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MEMORY CONSOLIDATION?/
HIPPOCAMPUS