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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Clinical Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
Dependent Variable
the experimental factor—in psychology, the behavior or mental process—that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.
Hindsight Bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Independent Variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Naturalistic Observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Critical Thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent.
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
the science of behavior and mental processes.
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.