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247 Cards in this Set

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a commonly used personality test
-mainly for high school/college students
-tests for dominance, sociability, responsibility, ect.
a strucutred/objective test of personality
most widely used
projective techniques
-unstructured personality tests
asses personality by using ambiguous stimuli to elict responses that are unguarded and authentic
I.e. tat & ink blot
objective personality test
surveys or something that are obviously testing personality
inkblot technique; unstructured personality assesment
big five
5 crucial demensions of personality
-extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and opennes to experience
social cognitive theory
explaining behavior should emphasive how people and situatations change moment by moment, not the person's trait or the situation by itself
projective technique
shown a set of pictures and asked to make up a story about each one
underlying, possibly innate attributes that predispose one towards certain patterns of thinking/behavior that are essentially consistent over time and across situations
a characteristic level of reactivity and energy, often thought to be constitutional
explanatory style
the manner in which a person explains good/bad fortunes that fall before him
a group of presubably psychogenic disorders including conversion disorders and dissociative disorders
pyschogenic disorders
disorders are psychological rather than organic (ie phobias)
psychodynamic approach
personality differences are based on unconcious (dynamic) conflicts w/ in the individual
the sense a person has about what things he can plausibly accomplish
anal stage
stage of psychosexual development during which the focus of pleasure is on activities related to elimination
archetypes? whose idea?
-Carl Jung
-the stories and images that constitute our collective unconciousnes
collective unconciousnes
a set of primordial stories and images that all of humanity share that underlie and shape our preceptions and desires
defense mechanisms
reactions that try to lessen anxiety by various unconcious means
a redirection of an impulse from a channel that is blocked into another, more available output
a set of rxns that try to reconcile the id's blind pleasure strivings w/ the demands of reality
electra complex
occurs during phallic stage )age 5)
intense love for father while hating the mother, which then turns to indetifing w/ the mother
-lingering attatchment to an earlier stage of pleasure seeking, even after a new stage has been attained
free association
say the first thing that comes to mind
oedipus complex
occurs during phallic stage )age 5)
intense love for father while hating the mother, which then turns to indetifing w/ the mother
genital stage
-reached in adult sexuality
-sexual pleasure involves not only one's own gratifaction but also that brought to another person
heirachy of needs
-Maslow and the humanis
-needs aarranged: physiological (hunger), sfety, attachment, love, esteerm, self-actualization
humanistic approach
asserts that what is most important about people is how the achieve their selfhood and actualize their potentials
primitive reactions, blindly striving for immediate biological satisfaction regardless of cost
oral stage
-earliest stage
-primary source of bodily pleasure is stumulation of the mouth and lips (i.e. sucking breast)
phallic stage
stage of psychosexual development when a child begins to regard the genitals as the major source of gratification
mechanism of defense
reinterpret unacceptable thoughts or impulse into things that feel more acceptable
positive psychology
emphasizes the research in factors that make people healthy, happy, and well adjusted
-mechanism of defense
-forbiden thoughts/ impulse are attributed to another person
-ie I hate you becomes You hate me
reaction formation
mechanism of deffense
forbidden impulse turned into opposite
ie hate into exaggerated love
sociocultural approach? who?
many psychological phenomena, some of which have presumed to be universal, result from or are affected by cultural norms
defense mechanism
thoughts, impulse, memories are pushed out of conciousness
failure to associate freely and say whatever enters her head
-Maslow and humanist
full realization of ones potential
sum of one's beliefs about and attitudes toward one's self
super ego
reaction patterns that emerge from w/ in the ego
represent internalized rules of society
control the ego by punishment w/ guilt
unconditional positive regard
-Carl rogers
-belief that one is accepted and loved w/ out reservation
hostile action directed against another member of one's specicous, to do harm in order to limit the target's actions
different from behaviors in predation
atribution of arousal theory
Combines James-lange's bodily feedback w/ a cognitive approach
-various timuli trigger a general state of arousaal, which is then interpreted in the light of the subjects present situation and shaped into an emotional experience
basic emotions
a small set of elemental, built in emotions revealed by distinctive patterns of physiological reaction and facial expression
bystander effect
failing ot help strangers in distress-the larger the group a person is in the less likely he is to come to a stranger's assistance
-diffusion of responsibility
companionate love
a state of emotion, characterized by affection we feel for those whose live asre intertwined w/ our own
-different than romantic love
cultural display rules
learned but deaeply ingrained conventions tat govern what facial expressions of emotion can/cannot be shown in what contexts
diffussion of responsibility
when you are in a large crowd, you don't feel it is neccesary/ur responsibility to help out a stranger
pluralistic ignorance
a situation in which individuals in a group don't kow that there are others in a group who share their perception/confusion and interpret the other's inaction as reflecting knowledge that really isn't there
James-Lange theory
the subjective experience of emotion is the awareness of one's own bodily rxns in the presence of certain arousing stimuli
matching hypothesis
hypothesis that persons seek romantic or sexual partners who posses a similar level of physical attractiveness
rule of social interaction that decrees that one must repay whatever one has been given
romantic love
a state of emotion characterized by idealization of the beloved, turbulent emotions, and obsessive thoughts
social exchange
a theory that asserts that each partner in a social relationship gives something to the other and expects to get something in return
actor-observer difference
people who describe their own actions: emphasize external, situational causes
observers of others: emphasize internal, dispositional factors
fairly stable, evaluative disposition that makes a person think, feel, or behave positvely or negatively about some person, group, or social issue
casual attribution
a step of inferring or concluding what the cause of an observation was
cognitive dissonance
an inconsistency among some experiences, beliefs, or feelings
-unpleasant state that people try to reduce by reinterpreting some part of their experiences to make them consistent w/ others
a technique of persuasion, used by door-to-door salespeople initialy, in which 1 first obtains a small concession that then makes it easier to persuad the target to make a larger concession
fundamental attribution error
tendency to attribute behaviors to dispositinal qualities while underating the role of the situation
group polarization
a pattern observed in group discussion where attitudes of each member become more extreme as a result of the discusssion, even the topic of the arguments plausibly might have moderated their veiws
group think
a pattern of thinking that ocurs when a group works on a problem
Most effective: highly cohesive, external threat, closed to outside info/opinions
problem solving: a procedure that has often worked in the past and is likely, but not certain to work again
guarantee of success trade for efficiency
illusory correlation
a perceptiont that 2 factors tend to occur together, even tho they don't
ie accountants are introverted
impression magnets
steps that people take to influence/guid how other people percieve them
in group
social group that one is a member of, usually perceived as more homogeneous that onther groups of which one is not a member
out group
a social group w/ which one does not identify or to which one doesn't belong
messages that openly try to convince us to act a certain way or hold a particular belief
risky shift
a pattern in which a group appears more willing to take chances than the individual group members would have been on their won
generally the sume of one's beliefs about and attitued toward one-self
Rogers: sense of oneself as both an agent and objec
self-protective strategy in which one arranges for an obvious and nonthreating obstacle to one's own performace, such than any failure can be attributed to that obstacle
theory that we know our attitudes and feelings only indirectly, by observing our own behavior and then performing much the same processes of attribution that we employ when trying to understand others
social facilitation
the tendency to per
social loafing
an exaple of the diffusion of social impact in which people working collectively on a task generate less total effort than they would had they worked alone
schemas by which people try to categorize complex groups
-often negative, especially when applied to minority groups
fear of being alone and outside of the home, especially in a public place
often observed in those w/ paic disorder
antisocial personality disorder
aka psychopathy/sociopathy
continual trouble w/ society, indifferent toward others, impulsive, little concern for the future/past
bipolar disorder
patient swings from oen emotional extreme to another, expereincing both manic and depressive episodes
obsessions (persistnet/irrational thoughts and wishes)and compulsions(repetitive acts) are a defense against anxiety. An anxiety disorder
systemized false beliefs, often grandeur or persecution
dissociative disorder
disorders in which a whole set of mental events seems to be stored out of ordinary consciousness
general anxiety disorder
a mental disorder characterized by an all-pervasive, free-floating anxiety
percieved experiences that occur in the absence of actualy sensory stimulation
learned heplessness theory of depression
the theory that depression is analogous to learned helplessness effects produced in the lab
a mood disorder characterized by racing thoughts, pressured speech, irraitability or euphoria.
Impairments of judgement
persistent and irrational thoughts or wishes
uncontrollable, repetitivve acts
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder caharacterized by panic attacks (sudden episodes of terrifying bodily symptoms)
an anxiety disorder characterized by an intense and, at least on the surface, irrational fear
positive symptoms
symptoms that involve behavior or thinking that is either less pronounced or nonexistent in normal individuals (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior)
negative symptoms
symptoms that involve deficits in normal functioning (apathy, improvished speech, emotional blunting)
post traumatic stress disorder
chronic disorder that comes on after a stressful traumatic event.
Symptoms: dissociation, nightmares, flashbacks, sleep distrurbances
preparedeness theory
phobias grouw out of a built-in predisposition to learn to fear certain stimuli that may have posed serious dangers to our primate ancestors
a group of severe mental disorders
characterized by: marked disturbance of thought, withdrawal,inappropriate/flat emotions, delusions, and hallucinations
seasonal affective disorder
a mood disorder that shows reliable fuctuations w/ the time of year
somatoform disorders
mental disorders where bodily symptoms can predominate despite the absence of any known physical cause
unipolar depression (major depression)
mood disorder where patients are disabled by guilt/sadness, have no energy, pleasure or motivation.
Disturbances of sleep, diet, and other bodily fxns
anxiety hierarchy
gradual conditioning to stimuli by conditioning w/ relaxing treatments
aversion therapy
therapy where the undesirable response leads to a punishment (ie shock for smoking cigarette)
somatic treatment, mostly used for cases of severe depression, which sends a current thru the brain producing a convulsive seizure
cognitive therapy
an approach to therapy that tries to change some of the patient's habitual mode of thinking about self, situation, and future
movement intended to obtain better/less expensive care for the mentally ill-not large, centralized hospitals
free association
say anything that comes to your mind
interpersonal therapy
patient gains understanding on how she interacts w/ others, and then learns better ways to interact and communicate
mental health parity
insurance plans should reimburse for mental disorders just like medical disorders
-statistical technique for combining the results of many studies
therapy that draws on the person gaining insight into their unconscious thoughts and feelings
psychodynamic therapy
similar to psychoanalysis
neurosurgey performed to get rid of mental disorders that can't be controlled other ways
psychotropic medications
control, or moderate, manifestations of mental disorder
tendency to respond to the analyst in ways that re-create her response to the major figures in her own life
what 3 variables are necessary for evolutoion to occur?
variability, inheritance, and selection
What are the basic things that are attractive to both sexes?
symmettry, facial averageness, and good hair, skin, muscle, and energy level
halo effect
tendency to think that b/c some one has one good trait they will have other good traits also
what do both men and women prefer in their mates-not physical?
kindess and intelligence
companionate love? 3 features
stable, similarity of outlook, cooperative relationship
Different Fitness costs in men and women?
Men: paternity certainty
Women: investment certainty
different average concerns in men and women?
men: sexual fidelity
women: emotional fidelity
Questions asked to determine personality?
what are they like?
always like that?
always been like that?
clues they are like that? why like that?
a stable set of characteristics that influence an individuals response to certain situations
Why do we care about personality?
useful short hand
describes people
predicts behavior
how much does heredity affect personality?
features of psychodynamic theory of personality
-early experience important
-role of the unconcious
-personality emerges from unconcious conflicts
name the ages/stages of psychosexual development
oral (1), anal (2-3), phallic (3-5), latency (5-puberty, genital (adolecents)
phallic stage fixation/tendency
masturbation, oedipus complex
vanity, recklessness, gender confusion
anal stage
toilet training
passive, dependent
Criticism of psychosexual theory
difficult to measure
too negative
men are the norm
no culture
Skinner'r radical behaviorism?
Bandura's social learning theory
Criticisms of Skinner and Bandura
-no human will
-no emotion
-no personality
-not always applicable
Humanistic Theory
want to achieve potential
want health
focus on present and future
Criticisms of Rogers and Maslow
dificult to measure
doesn't describe specific characteristics
a Sheldon somatotype
soft round body, tolerant and loveable
a sheldon somatotype
square body, adventerous, competivite
sheldon somatotype
thin, self-concious, mentally intense
Gordon allport and the trait theory
factor analysis using many different personality descriptors from cardinal to central to secondary
Raymond Cattell
Narrowed Allport's to 16 traits from 170 adjectives
body types and words to make categories of personalities
Hans Eyesnics circle chart
Introverted and unstable
introverted and stable
Extroverted and Stable

Eysenck's theory
extroverted and unstable
Objective personalit tests
Neo-PI (big 5)
Projective personality tests
Rosarchs and
Thematic Apperception Test
Phases of the Rorshac test
response and inquiry
criticims of Rorshac and TAT?
reliability and standardization
Who evented the TAT
Henry Murray
functions of emotions
arouse system to action
signal something meaninful
social interaction
What did paul ekman study?
if emotions are universal, and coinded some fundamemntal emotional paterns
Primary: fear, sad, suprise, contempt, anger, happy disgust, pride
Secondary emotions require a little more thought
Plutchik's model of emotions?
branch out from some very specific emotions to ones that are less intense
Are peoples perceptions of emotions universal?
definetely not
what is necessary to interpret emotions?
what is the role of the amygdala and emotions?
/What is the role of the hypothalamus and emotions?
cerebral lateralization?
Cognitive processes in emotional experience?
facial feedback
emotion feedback loop
social processes in emotional experience
mood contagion
mirror neurons
gender and culture
males and emotions?
respond quick, stay elevated longer, rehearse
women and emotions?
respond slower, self-focused rumination
Wht determines emotional sensitivity
sex, familiarity, sender's expressiveness, power, stereotypes/expectations
What suports James-Langes theory of emotion?

What goes against it?
facial feedback

artificial arousal does not lead to emotion
What suports Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

What goes against it?
slow nervous system and endocrine response

spinal cord injuries
What suports the Shacher-Singer theory of emotion?

What goes against it?
artificial arousal can lead to emotion

unique patterns of arousal
James lange theory of emotion
There is a stimimulus the an autonomic arousal then a concious emotion
Cannon bard theory of emotion
There is a stimulus then subcortical activity in the thalamus then the concious emotion and the autonomic arousal occur at the same time
what is the Shacter-Singer theory of emotion?
"attribution of arousal"
There is a physiological arousal and then a cognitive interpretation of it
Gender differences in mate selection?
men want pretty while women want rich
evolutionary role of love?
encourages sexual activity
ensures protection of infants
promotes caretaking team
Sternbers theory of love?
passion, intamacy,and commitment
What is empty love?
only commitment, none of the others
What is romantic love?
not commitment
What is fatuous love?
no intamacy
What is companionat4e love?
no passion
What is consummate love?
all 3
What is liking?
just intamacy
Predictors of relationship success?
intamacy (knowing each other), commitment, and problem solving
signs of relationship problems?
criticism, contempt, defensiveness, withdrawl
Why are humans social?
division of labor
manifestations of our tendency to affiliate?
social snacking
parasocial attachments
nonconscious behavioral mimicry
biobehavior basis of affiliation?
human stress respons: tend and befriend
social pain theory ?
pain overlap theory?
why do we have stereotypes?
shorthand for understanding
protect our self esteem
sustained by conformation biases and self-fulfilling prophecies
explanations for a person's behavior
Research studies on conformity?
What happens in each?
ach's line judgements
Milgram's obedience studies
Zimbardo's prison study
Research on help
Darley's bystander intervention study
What influences conformity?
another ally present
identification w/ the group
group size
steps in deviding to help?
notice? realize needed help? feel responsible? make a decision? follow through?
What kind of behavior is abnormal?
violates cultural standards
statistically rare
causes distress
perceptual/congnitive distorition or irrationality
Historical perceptivs of abnomality?
from demons to humoral imbalance to influences on the brain
What influences the brain
environment, genes, and experience
What is the pathway of mental disorders?
predisposing factors, to the onset w/ precipitating factors, to maintences w/ perpetuating factors
What makes up the biopsychosocial approach?
psycho bio and social aspects
Two types of ways to classify mental disorders
International Classification of Diseases and
Disgnotic and Staticial Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
What is in the DSM?
list of mental disorders and symptoms
What are the axis of the DSM?
I: primary disagnosis
II: personality disorders
III: related medical problems
IV: social, environmental problems
V: overall functioning
Benfits of DSM
facilitates communication btwn professionals
Increases reliability of diagnoses
validates experiences for patient
Limitations fo diagnostic systems
encourages diagnosis
-emphasizes deficits
-can be misused
-false impression of objectivity
legal term
inability to appreciate wrongness of an act
inabillity to control behavior
history of pleading insanity
1834 M'Nahton in england acquitted due to "mental defect"
How much is insanity defense used?
1% of felony
26% are acquitted
less extreme than depression
less extreme than maniac
feeling more than 1 episode at once
Difference between Bipolar I and II?
don't feel the maniac highs in biplar II
Cyclothimic Disorder?
extreme changes in mood
Life time prevalence of Major Depressive disorder in men and women?
10% men and 20% women
cognitive symptoms of major depression?
negative cognitive triad: about self, the rest of the world, and the future
also lack of concentration and focus
types of syptoms for Major depression?
emtional, motivational, cognitive, and somatic
What do teens report when talking about dpression?
middle age?
How long does it take for depression to go away if left untreated?
6th months
What are the different courses of depression?
Recurrent w/ out full interepisode recovery
Recurrent, full interepisode recovery
Singel episode
If you have 1 episode, what is the chance of having another?
who make the most attempts at suicide?
young, women, angry, want attention, use low lethality methods, and not hiding
Who complete the most suicides?
older, men, hopless, high lethality methods, exclude themselves
Most important warning sign of depression?
having a method and a plan
What % of people give warning of suicide?
Prevalence of bipolar disorder?
symptoms of bipolar 1?
emo: euphoria, irratable
motivational:talkative, rapid speech
Cognitive: expansive, grandiosity, distraction
Somatic: little sleep, agitated
When do the 1st episodes of Bipolar I usually ocur?
early 20's
% of people who have recurrent episodes of bipolar I
What defines rapid cycling of bipolar I? what % have this
4+ cycles/ year
Key features of phobias
exaggerated, irrational fears
recognized as excesive
phobia avoided/endured w/ dread
distress/impairment of fxning
common obsessions?
contamination, doubts, need for order, aggressive impulses, sexual imagery
what is the goal of compulsions?
to prevent anxiety or a dreaded event
common compulsions
washing, ordering, checking, counting, repeating words silently
lifetime prevalence of OCD
Age of onset of OCD for men? for women?
6-15 for men
20-29 women
Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia
What did Emile Kraeplin call schizophrenia? who changed the name?
dementia praecox; Bleuler
What are positive symptoms of Shcizophrenia? examples?
excess/distortion of normal behavior
Hallucinations and delusions
What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia? Examples?
inability to do something normal people do:
alogia-stunted speech
avolition-lack of motivation
anhedonia-don't feel pleasure
affective flattening-emotional dullness
Disorganized symtpoms of Schizophrenia
memory problems
Types of schizophrenia?
paranoid: delusions of persecution, onset late 20's, respond most to medication
Disorganized schizophrenia: less likely to have positive symtpoms
Catonic schizophrenia: not motivated
Indifferentiated schizoprenia: symptoms from all of these types
Causes of Schizoprhenia
prenatal stressors
stress of living
Diathesis stress model: your initial thresholds determines if it will be crossed or not
Tasks in the clinical encounter
1. asses/diagnose
2. plan treatment
3. therapy
4. relapse prevention
5. termination
What determines what happens in therapy?
the format, the problem, the type of therapist
Types of Biological Treatment
ECT: shock for miniseizure-very effective and common
TMS- magnetic w/ no electricity
Benefits of biological treatment
fast acting (1-2 weeks)
less embarassing?
Drawbacks of biological treatment
potential side ffects
possibility for relapse
therapeutic window: what dose
long term risks
What's the message? doesn't address all issues
Psychodynamic theraphy includes-
psychoanalysis (frued)-talking
Psychodynamic- insight into unconcious, free association, interpretations
Behavior therapy
no thinking or insights
Classical condintioning: for anxiet
Operant Conditioning
Modeling: social skills training
Cognitive therapy
important how people think about themselves
Rational-emotive therapy-challenge people on why they act that way (activating event, belief that comes from the event, consequence)
Cognitive Therapy o Beck-can control your feelings or thoughts-journals
Humanist therapy
Gestault therpay-focus on the whole
Client-centered therapy-Carl Rogers
cognitive/behavior therapy is best for..?
anxiety disorders