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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
natural selection
well adapted animals produce more offspring
genetic structure
outward appearance and behaviors
the inheritance of physical and psychological traits from ancestors
the study of the mechanisms of heredity
contain the instructions for the production of protiens
sex chromosomes
contain genes coding for development of male or female physical characteristics
the full sequence of genes found on the chromosomes with associated DNA
human behavior genetics
unite genetics and psychology to explore the casual link between inheritance and behavior
0- environmental
1- genetics
provide evolutionary explanations for the social behavior and systems of humans and other species
evolutionary psychology
extend evolutionary explanations to include other aspects of human experience, such as how the mind functions
study of the natural laws of the human body
Paul Broca
studied language in the brain
magnetic stimulation creating lesions briefly activating regions of the brain
Walter Hess
electrical stimulation to prob structures deep in brain
amplified tracing of brain activity
PET scans
given radioactive substances, absorbed by cells, give off radioactivity, can tell which ones are active
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to generate pulses of energy in brain
combines MRI and PET and detects magnetic changes in flow of blood cells to brain
CNS- central nervous system
composed of all neurons in the brain and the spinal cord- coordinates bodily functions, processes incoming neural messages, sends commands to diff. parts of the body
PNS- peripheral nervous system
made of all nerve fibers that connect CNS to body
somatic nervous system
regulates the actions of the body's skeletal muscles
autonomice nervous system
sustains basic life processes (functions u don't think about controlling)
sympathetic division
governs responses to emergency situations
parasympathetic division
monitors the routine operation of the body's internal functions "fight or flight"
brain stem
contains structures that collectively regulate the internal state of the body
center for blood pressure, breathing, and hearbeat
provides inputs to other structures in the brain stem and cerebellum
reticular formation
arouses the cerebral cortex to attend new stimulation and keeps brain alert
channels incoming sensory info. to the cerebral cortex
coordinates bodily movement, controls posture, and maintains equilibrium
limbic system
regulates body temp. and blood pressure, emotional states, and memory processes
-largest part of limbi system
- important in aquisition of memories
emotional control and formation of emotional memories- may play part in knowledge related to danger and threat
motivated behavior (unconcious everyday actions) maintains homeostasis
body's internal equilibrium
regulates brain higher cognitive and emotional functions
cerebral cortex
outter surfacr of cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres
the brains hemispheres
corpus collosum`
thick mass of nerve fibers connecting 2 hemispheres of brain
frontal lobe
controls motor skills and cognitive skills, planning, making decisions, setting goals
parietal lobe
sensations, touch ,pain, and temperature
occipital lobe
final destination for visual information
temporal lobe
responsible for hearing
motor cortex
controls body's voluntary muscles
somatosensory cortex
processes info about temperature, touch, body position, and pain
auditory cortex
where auditory info. is processed
visual cortex
where visul input is processed at the back of the brain
association cortex
planning and decision making- combine info from various sensory things and react to stimuli in environment
Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga
hemispheres R controls L and L controls R
when on side of the brain dominates the other
endocrine system
network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones
hormones (es)
chemical messengers
pituitary gland
10 diff. hormones- influences growth
stimulates sperm production
triggers the release of ova in a woman
cell specialized to recieve, process, and transmit info. to other cells in body
branched fibers that recieve incoming signals from sense receptors
contains nucleus of cell and cytoplasm
single extended fiber- recieves info from dendrites and passes it to terminal buttons
terminal buttons
swollen bublike structures through which the neuron can stimulate nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons
neurons transmitt info
dendrites-through soma-axon-terminal buttons
sensory neurons
carry messages from sense receptor cells to CNS
motor neurons
carry messages away from CNS towards muscles and glands
relay messages from sensory neurons to other interneurons or to motor neurons
glia cells
-hold neurons in place
- help guide newborn neurons to appropriate locations in brain
- clean up junk left behind
-form myelin sheath
-protects toxic substances from brain
- nueral communication
blood-brain barrier to protect brain from substances that shouldn't be absorbed
neurons fire!
neurons don't fire!
resting potential
polarization- fluid inside cell polarized in relation to fluid outside cell
ion channels
excitable portions of the cell membrane that selectively permit certain ions to flow in and out
the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level
action potential
self propogating- needs no outside stimulation to keep moving
relative refractory period
neuron will only fire in response to a stimulus stronger than what is ordinarily necessary
absolute refractory period
further stimulation cannot cause another action potential to occur
the gap between one neuron and another
synaptic transmission
the relaying of info from one neuron to another across the synaptic gap
biochemical substances that stimulate other neurons
can cause muscles to contract- lack of = Alzheimers
inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain- messenger
any substance that modifies or modulates the activities of the postsynaptic neuron
lack of - depression
lack of - schizophrenia
changes in performance in the brain
the production of new brain cells from naturally occuring stem cells
true experiment
has internal validity